M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-VI (Compulsory)
Quantum Mechanics

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Unit I
Time dependent perturbation theory, First order perturbation theory applied to non-degenerate states, second order perturbation, Application of perturbation theory to the ground state energy of He atom (calculation given in Pauling and Wilson), Normal and anomalous Zeeman effect, first order Stark effect in the ground and first excited states of H atom and second order Stark effect of H atom, an-harmonic oscillator.

Unit II
Time dependent perturbation theory, transition rate, constant perturbation harmonic in time, radiative transitions, absorption and induced emission, atomic radiation, dipole approximation, Einstein’s atomic radiation, Einstein’s A and b coefficients and their calculations.
Approximation methods: W.K.B. method and its application to barrier penetration.
Variational principle and its application to simple cases like ground state of He atom and deuteron in Yukawa potential.

Unit III
System of identical particles, exchange and transposition operators, totally symmetric and anti-symmetric wave function and their expressions for a system of non-interacting particles, statistics of systems of identical particles, Relation of statistics with spin, Ortho and para states of the helium atom and their perturbation by Coulomb repulsion.
Hamiltonian of a molecule, Born-Oppenheimer approximation, Heitler-London theory of the hydrogen molecule, Outline of the helium atom and their perturbation by the Coulomb repulsion.

Unit IV
Scattering theory, scattering cross-section in laboratory and centre of mass system, scattering by a central potential, Partial wave method, phase shifts and their importance, scattering by a square well potential and a perfectly rigid sphere, resonance scattering.

Unit V
Relativistic wave equation, the Klein-Gordon equation and initial difficulties in interpreting its solutions, Dirac’s relativistic equation, Dirac’s matrices, explanation of the spin of the electron, equation for an electron in an electromagnetic field and explanation of the magnetic moment due to the electron spin, spin-orbit interaction, solution for hydrogen atom in Dirac’s theory, Negative energy states and their qualitative explanations.
Quantization of scalar and electromagnetic fields, explanation of absorption and spontaneous and induced emissions.

Reference and Text Books:

  1. E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics (Wiley and Sons-Toppon)
  2. J. L. Fowell and b. Crazemann, Quantum mechanics ( B I Publications)
  3. L I Schiff, Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill)
  4. D. Bohm, Quantum Theory (Asia Publishing House)
  5. Pauling and Wilson, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
  6. A.K. Ghatak and S. Lokanathan, Quantum Mechanics (Macmillan, India)
  7. P.T. Mathews and K. Venkatesan, A text book of Quantum Mechanics ( Tata McGraw-Hill)
  8. P.T. Mathews, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (Tata-McGraw-Hill)


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-VII (Compulsory)   

Nuclear And Particle Physics

Unit-I
Nuclear mass and binding energy: Determination of nuclear masses, Semi-empirical mass formula, Relative abundance, Compound nucleus, Optical models stripping reactions, Coulomb excitation.
Angular momentum and magnetic moment. Molecular beam resonance and NMR methods (Bloch and Purcell). Mossbauer effect.  

Unit-II
Nuclear Interactions and Nuclear Reactions: Nucleon- nucleon interaction- Exchange forces and tensor forces – Meson theory and nuclear forces, Nucleon-nucleon scattering – Effective range theory, Spin dependence of nuclear forces – Charge independence and charge symmetry of nuclear forces - Isospin formalism – Yukawa interaction.

Direct and compound nuclear reaction mechanisms – Cross sections in terms of partial wave amplitude – Compound nucleus – Scattering matrix – Reciprocity theorem  

Unit-III
Nuclear Models: Liquid drop model – Bohr – Wheeler theory of fission – Experimental evidence for shell effects – Shell model – Spin – orbital coupling – Magic numbers – Angular momenta and parities of nuclear ground states – Qualitative discussion and estimates of transition rates – Magnetic moments and Schmidt lines – Collective model of Bohr Mottelson.

Unit-IV
Nuclear decay: Beta decay – Fermi theory of beta decay – Shape of the beta spectrum – Total decay rate – Angular momentum and parity selection rules – Comparative half – lives – Allowed and forbidden transitions – Selection rules – Parity violation – Two component theory of neutrino decay – Detection and properties of neutrino – Gamma decay – Multipole transitions in nuclei – Angular momentum and parity selection rules – Internal conversion – Nuclear isomerism.

Unit-V
Elementary particle physics: Types of interaction between elementary particles – Hadrons and leptons – Symmetry and conservation laws – Elementary ideas of CP and CPT invariance – Classification of hadrons – Lie algebra, SU(2) – SU(3) multiplets – Quark model – Gell – Mann – Okubo formula for octet and decuplet hadrons – Charm, Bottom and tom quarks.

Text and reference Books

  1. Bohr and B.R. Mottelson, Nuclear Structure, Vol. 1 (1969) and Vol 2, Benjamin, Reading, A. 1975
  2. Kenneth S. Kiane, Introductory Nuclear Physics, Wiley, New Yark, 1988
  3. Ghoshal, Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Vol. 2.
  4. P.H. Perkins, Introduction to high Energy Physics, Addison-Wesley, London, 1982.
  5. Shirokov Yudin, Nuclear Physics Vol. 1 & 2, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1982.
  6. D. Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary Particles, Harper and Row, New York, 1987.
  7. F.A. Enge, Introduction to Nuclear Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1975
  8. G.E. Brown and A.D. Jackson, Nucleon interaction, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976.
  9. S.de Benedetti, Nuclear interaction, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1964
  10. M.K. Pal, Theory of nuclear structure, Affiliated East, Madras, 1982.
  11. Y.R. Waghmare, Introductory nuclear physics, Oxford – IBH, Bombay, 1981.
  12. J.M. Longo, Elementary particles, Mc-Grow-Hill, NY, 1971.
  13. R.D. Evans, Atomic nucleus Mc-Grow-Hill, NY, 1955
  14. Kapaln, Nuclear Physics, 2nd addition, Narosa, Madras, 1989.
  15. B.L. Cohen, Concepts of nuclear physics, TMGH, Bombay. 1071.
  16. R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam, Nuclear physics, Wiley – Eastern Ltd., 1983.  


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-VIII (Elective)   
Quantum Electrodynamics and Reactor Physics

Quantum Electrodynamics
Unit-I

Dirac equation, Properties of Dirac Matrices, Projection operators, Traces, Feynman’s theory of positron. Second unitization of Klein-Gorden Field, Creation and annihilation operators Commutation relation.

Unit-II

Fock space representation, Interacting fields, Dirac (Interaction) picture, S-matrix and its expansion, Ordering theorem, Feynman’s graph and Feynman’s rule. Application to some problems like Rutherford scattering and Compton scattering, Calculation of cross section using v graphs.

Reactor Physics

Unit-III

Interaction of Neutron with Matter in Bulk: Transport and diffusion equations, transport mean free path, Solution of diffusion equation for a point source in an infinite medium and for an infinite plane source in a finite medium, extrapolation length and diffusion length- the albedo concept.

Moderation of Neutron : Mechanics of elastic scattering, average logarithmic energy decrement, slowing down power and moderating ratio of a medium Fermi’s age theory, solution of age equation for a point source of fast neutrons in an infinite medium, slowing down length, Fermi age.

Unit-IV
Theory of Homogeneous Bare Thermal Reactor: Critical equation, material and geometric bucklings, Neutron balance in a thermal reactor, four factor formula, typical calculations of critical size and composition in simple cases.
Heterogeneous Natural Uranium Reactors: Advantages and disadvantages of heterogeneous assemblies, various types of reactors and a brief discussion of their design features.

Unit-V

Problems of reactor control and maintenance: Role of delayed neutrons, inhour formula, temperature effects, fission product poisoning, use of coolants and control rods.
Power reactors: Fast breeder reactor, dual purpose reactors, concept of fusion reactors.

Text and Reference Books
  1. Bjoken and Drell: Relativistic quantum field
  2. Muirhead: The physics of elementary particles
  3. Schweber, Bethe and Hoffmann: Mesons and field
  4. Sakurai: Advance quantum mechanics
  5. Mandal: Introduction to field theory
  6. Lee: Particle physics and introduction to field theory.
  7. Glasston & Edlund: The Elements of Nuclear Reactor theory
  8. Murry: Introductions of nuclear Engineering.
  9. Bjoken and Drell: Relativistic quantum field
  10. Muirhead: The physics of elementary particles
  11. Schweber, Bethe and Hoffmann: Mesons and field
  12. Sakurai: Advance quantum mechanics
  13. Mandal: Introduction to field theory
  14. Lee: Particle physics and introduction to field theory.


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-IX (Elective) 
 
Physics of Liquid Crystals,  Electronic Devices and
Fabrication of Integrated Circuits

Physics of liquid crystals

Unit-I
Classification of liquid crystals and their parameters: Symmetry structure and classification of liquid crystal, Polymorphism in thermotropics, Reentrant phenomenon in liquid crystals, Blue phases, polymer liquid crystals, distribution functions and other parameters, Macroscopic and microscopic order parameters, Measurement of order parameters, magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction.

Unit-II
Theories of liquid crystalline phase transition: Nature of phase transitions and critical phenomenon in liquid crystals, Hard particle, Maier-Saupe and Van der wWalls theories for nematic –isotropic and nematic smectic A transitions Landau theory, Essential ingredients applications to nematic isotropic nematic smectic A transitions and transitions involving smectic phases. Continuum theory: Curvature elasticity in nematic smectic A phases, Distortions due to magnetic and electric fields, Magnetic coherence length, Freedeicksz transitions, Field induced cholesteric nematic transition

Unit-III
 Dynamical properties of Nematic: The equations of nemato-dynamics, laminar flow, Molecular motions.
Optical properties of cholesterics: Optical properties of ideal helices, Agent influencing the pitch, Liquid crystal display,

Ferroelectric Liquid crystals: The properties of smectic C continuum description smectic C- smectic A transition  applications. Discotic Liquid crystals: Symmetry and structure, mean field description of discotic liquid crystals, continuum description, Lyotropic liquid crystals and biological membrane. Applications of liquid crystals. electronic devices and fabrication of integrated circuits

Unit-IV
Semiconductor materials:Energy bands, intrinsic carrier concentration, donors and acceptors, direct and indirect band semiconductors, degenerate and compensated semiconductors, elemental (Si) and compound semiconductors (GaAs), replacement of group –III and group-V elements to get tertiary alloy such as AlxGa(1-x)As or GaPyAs(1-y) and quaternary InxGa(1-x)PyAs(1-y) alloys  and their important properties such band gap and refractive index changes with x and y. Doping of Si Group-III (n) and Group-V (p) compounds) and GaAs (Group II(p) IV (np) and (VI (n compounds). Diffusion of impurities, thermal diffusion, constant surface concentration, constant total dopant diffusion, ion implantation

Carrier transport in semiconductors: Carrier drift under low and high field in ( Si and GaAs), saturation of drift velocity, high field effect in two valleys semiconductors, carrier diffusion, carrier injection, Generation recombination processes.

Unit-V

Fabrication of integrated devices (overview and basic principle): Thin film deposition techniques, Vacuum pump and gauges, pumping speed throughout effective conductance control, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) MOCVD, PEMOCVD (Plasma enhanced CVD) Physical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), Sputtering and laser ablation, lithography, etching and micro-machining of Si, Fabrication of integrated circuit and integrated micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS).

Text Book and References

  1. Liquid crystal : Chandrasekhar
  2. Thermotropic liquid crystals: Fundamentals : Vertogen and de Jeu
  3. The physics of liquid crystals : de Gennes & Prost
  4. Introduction to liquid crystals: Physics and Chemistry.: Taylor and Francis
  5. The optics of thermotropic liquid crystal :Elston & Sambles
  6. Liquid crystal polymers: from structures to applications    :           Collyer
  7. Ferroelectric liquid crystals: Principle properties and Applications: Gooby et al
  8. Physics of semiconductor devices : D.A. Eraser (Oxford Physics Series, 1986)
  9. Thin film phenomenon : K.L. Chpra
  10. The materials science of thin films : Milton S. Ohring
  11. Optical electronics : A. Ghatak and  K. Thyagarajan (Cambridge Univ. Press)
  12. Materials science for engineers : James F. Shackelford (Prentice Hall)
  13. Deposition techniques for film and coatings : R.F. Bunshah (Noyes publishers)
  14. Solid state electronics : B.G. Streetman


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-X (Elective)
Science and Technology of Solar Hydrogen & Other Renewable Energies
and Nano-Materials

solar hydrogen and other renewable energies

Unit-I

Solar Energy: Fundamentals of photovoltaic energy conversion, Physics and materials properties, basic to photovoltaic energy conversion, Optical properties of solids, Direct and indirect transition semiconductors, interrelationship between absorption coefficients and band gap recombination of carriers. Types of solar cells, p-n junction solar cell, transport equation, current density, open circuit voltage and short circuit current, Brief description of single crystal silicon and amorphouse silicon solar cells, Nature of semiconductor, Electrolyte junction, Principles of Photo-electrochemical solar cells.

Unit-II

Hydrogen energy: Relevance in relation to depletion of fossil fuels and environmental considerations.

Hydrogen Production: Solar hydrogen through Photo-electrolysis and Photo-catalytic process. Physics and material characteristics for production of solar hydrogen.

Unit-III

Storage of Hydrogen: Brief discussion of various storage processes, special features of solid state hydrogen storage materials, structural and electronic characteristics of storage materials, New storage modes.

Safety and Utilization of Hydrogen : Various factors relevant to safety, use of Hydrogen as fuel, Use in vehicular transport, hydrogen for electricity generation, Fuel cells, Elementary concept of other hydrogen based devices such as sir conditioners and hybrid batteries.   

Nano-Materials
Unit-IV

Free electron theory (qualitative idea) and its features, Idea of band structure, Metals, Insulators and semiconductors, Density of state in bands, Variation of density of states with energy variation of density of state and band gap with size of crystal.

Unit-V

Quantum size effect: Electron confinement in infinitely deep square well, Confinement in two and one dimensional well, Ideas of quantum well structure, Quantum dots, Quantum wires.
Determination of particle size, Increase in width of XRD peaks of nano-particles, Shift in photoluminescence peaks, Variation on Raman spectra of nano-materials. 
Different methods of preparation of nano-materials, Bottom up: cluster beam evaporation, Ion beam deposition, Chemical bath deposition with capping techniques and tom down: Ball milling.

Text and Reference Books
  1. Solar cell Devices-Physics: Fonash.
  2. Fundamentals of solar cells photovoltaic solar energy: Fahrenbruch & Bube
  3. Photo-electrochemical solar cells: Chandra.
  4. Hydrogen as an energy carrier technologies Systems economy: Winter & Nitch
  5. Nanotechnology molecularly designed materials : Gan-Moog Chow, K.E. Gonsalves (American Chemical Society)
  6. Quantum dot hetero-structures : D. Bimerg, M. Grundmann and N N Ledentsov (John Eiley & Sons, 1998).
  7. Nano technology: Molecular specialization on global      : B.C. Crandall (MIT Press) abunda           
  8. Physics of two dimensional physics : John H. Devies (Cambridge Univ. Press)
  9. Physics of semiconductor nano structures : K.P. Jain (Narosa, 1997)
  10. Nano fabrication and bio system: Integrating materials science engineering science and biology: Harvey C. Hoch, Harald G. Craighead and Lynn Jelinski (Cambridge Univ. Press, 96)         
  11. Nano particles and nano structured films: Preparation Characterization and applications : Editor J.H. Fendler (John Wiley and Sons,1998)


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-XI (Elective)

Numarical Methods & Programming

 

Unit –I :         
Random errors, Systematic errors, Numerical errors, Absolute errors, Instrumental errors, Propagation of errors in operation Significant figures Precision and Accuracy Standard Deviation methods of determination of zeroes of linear and non-linear algebraic equations and transcendental equations, convergence of solution.
Numerical solution of non-linear equation:Iterative methods, Bisection methods, False position Bairstraw method, Ramanujam method, Successive approximation method. Solution of simultaneous linear equations,Gaussian elimination.

Unit-II
Matrices and Determinants :Matrices common matrix operations,determinant, inverse and algorithm of a matrix, pivoting, expansion of a determinant.
Algorithms and programs listing Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices, Power and Jacobi method.
Finite differences, interpolation with equally spaced and unevenly spaced points Cubic spline fitting.

Unit-III

Numerical Methods: Methods for determination of zeros of linear and non-linear algebraic equations and transcendental equations, Convergence of solutions, Solution of simultaneous linear equation, Gaussian elimination, Pivoting iterative method, matrix inversion, eigen values and Eigen vectors of matrices and Power and Jacobi method.



Unit-IV

Finite differences, interpolation with equally spaced and unevenly space points, curve fitting polynomial least squares and cubic Spline fitting. Numerical differentiation and integration, Newton-Cotes formulae, error estimates, Gauss method, Random variate, Monte-Carlo evaluation of integrals, Method of important sampling, Random walk and Metropolis method, Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations, Euler and Range Kutta methods, Predictor and correctors method, elementary ideas of solutions of partial differential equations.

Unit-V

Programming: Logical structure, Representation of numbers in memory. Advance C/C++ and VB Programming. Algorithms.

 

Text and reference Books.

  1. Sastry, Introductory method of Numerical analysis
  2. Rajaraman: Numerical analysis
  3. Vettrming, Teukolsky, Press and Flannery: Numerical Recipes.
  4. Salaria : Computater Oriented Numerical Methods, 
  5. Y.M. Kanetkar : Let us C.
  6. Numerical Methods E.Balaguruswamy, Tata Mcgraw hill publishing company.
  7. Computational Physics,  H.C. Verma.
  8. Numerical Methods, Schaum Series


 M. Sc. II Physics
Paper-XII (Elective)
Structures,  Spectra and Properties of Biomolecules

Unit-I

Structural aspects of biomolecules: Conformational principle, confirmation and configuration isomers and derivatives, structure of polyneucleotides, structure of polypeptides, primary secondary tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins, structure of polysaccharides.

Unit-II
Theoretical techniques and their applications to biomolecules: Hard sphere approximations, Ramachandran plots, Potential energy surfaces, outlines of molecular mechanics methods,

Unit-III
Semi-empirical and ab-intio quantum theoretical method, molecular charge distribution, molecular electrostatic potentials and fields and their uses.

Unit-IV

Spectroscopic techniques and their applications to biomolecules: Use of NMR in elucidation of molecular structure, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular-dichroism laser Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, photo-acoustic spectroscopy, photo-biological aspects of nucleic acid.

Unit-V

Structure function relationship and modeling: Molecular recognition, hydrogen bonding, Lipophilic pockets on receptors, drugs and their principles of action, lock and key model and induced fit model.

Text Book and References

1.   Structural aspects of biomolecules : Srinivasan and Pattabhi
2.   Conformation of biological molecules : Govil & Hosur
3.   Basic molecular biology : Price
4.   Quantum mechanics of biological molecules : Pullman
5.   Biological chemistry : Mehar & Cordes
6.   Molecular photobiology : Smith and Hanawalt


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-XIII (Elective)
Diagram Techniques

Unit-I

Formalism of second quantization: Quantum mechanical many body problem, Boson and Fermion systems, Creation and annihilation operators, Commutation relations, Vacuum state. 

 
Unit-II

The Hamiltonian in terms of creation and annihilation operators and its matrix elements for the simple cases of one- and two particle systems. Time Dependent Operators: Schrodinger, Heisenberg and Interaction picture, Time development operator (TDO), its properties and equation of motion,

Unit-III

The integral equation for TDO and formal solution by iterative method, Dyson chronological operator, S-matrix expansion, Universality of S-Matrix Transition matrix, The adiabatic hypothesis and correspondence with usual perturbation theory.

Unit-IV
Introduction to Graphs: Creation and destruction operator in the interaction picture, Particle and hole operators. Reduction of chronological products. Normal product. Contraction of operators and Wick’s theorem. Graphical representation of the expansion. First order graphs, Higher order graphs, The interaction term and ground state energy. Evaluation of the contributions of various graphs to the perturbation series; Linked and unlinked diagrams.

Unit-V
Introduction to Green’s Function: Differential equation and their Green’s functions. Examples of time independent Schrodinger equation, Resolvent operators. The single particle Green’s function. Physics interpretation. Fourier transform of the Green’s functions.  Lehmann Representation and Kramer-Kronig relationship.  Analytic properties and physical meaning of the poles, Relation between Green’s function and the properties of the ground state. Its relation with elementary excitations. Concept of quasi particles.

Text Book and References
  1. Raimes: Many Electron Theory
  2. Mandl: Introduction to Quantum Field theory
  3. Abrikosov: Quantum Field Theoretical Methods in statistical physics
  4. Fretter, Young & Sampantha: The Many Body problems in quantum mechanics

5.   MattuchL Feynman Diagram Techniques.


M. Sc. II Physics
Paper-XIV (Elective)
Atmospheric Science

Unit-I.
Physical Meteorology : Atmospheric composition, law of thermodynamics of the atmosphere, Adiabatic process, potential temperature. The clauses clapyeron equation, law of black body radiation, solar and terrestrial radiation, Albedo, Green house effect, Heat balance of earth atmosphere system.
Atmospheric Pollution: Role of meteorology on atmospheric pollution, Atmospheric boundary layer, air stability, local wind structure, Ekman spiral, turbulence boundary layer scaling.
Residence time and reaction rates of pollutants, sulphour compounds, carbon compounds, organic compounds, aerosols, toxic gases and radio active particles trace gases.

Unit-II.           
Dynamic Meteorology: Fundamental forces, non-inertial reference frames and apparent forces, structure of static atmosphere. Momentum, continuity and energy equations, thermodynamics of the dry atmosphere, elementary applications of the basic equations. The circulation theorem, voracity, potential voracity and potential voracity equations.

Unit-III.
Monsoon Dynamics: Wind, temperature and pressure distribution over India in the lower,, middle and upper atmosphere during pre- post- and mid-monsoon season, Monsoon circulation in the meridonal (Y-Z) and zonal (X-Y) planes, energy cycle of monsoon, Dynamics of monsoon depression and easterly waves, Intra seasonal and interannual variability of monsoon, Quasi-be weekly and 30-60 day oscillations. ENSO & dynamical mechanism for their existence

Unit-IV.          
Numerical Methods for Atmospheric Models: Filtering of sound and gravity waves, filtered forecast equations, basic concepts of quasi-geotrohic and primitive equation models, one level and multi-level models, Basic concepts of initialization and objective analysis for wave equation, advection equation and diffusion equation

Unit-V.
Atmospheric Instrumentation systems.: Ground based instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind and rainfall rate.
Air born instruments, Radiosonde, Rawinsonde, Rockestsonde-satellite instrumentation (space born instruments)
Radar Meteorology: Basic meteorology, radar principles and technology, radar signal processing

Text Book and References

  1. The Atmosphere by Frederick K. Lutgens and Edward J. Tarbuk (For Ch-VI)
  2. Dynamic Meteorology by Holton, J.R. 3rd Eddition, Academic Press NY (1992)
  3. Physics of Mansoons, by R.N.Keshvamurthy and M.Shankar Rao, Allied Publisher(1992) Ch-3
  4. Numerical Weather Predication by G.J.Haltiner and R.T.Villians,John Wiley & Sons (1980) Ch-4
  5. Principles of Air Pollution meteorology by Tom Lyons and Prillscott, CBS publishers
  6. Radar Meteorology by Henry Saugageot.

M. Sc. II Physics
Paper-XV (Elective)
Plasma Physics

 
Unit-I

Production of Plasma in laboratory. Physics of glow discharge, electron emission, ionization, breakdown of gases, Paschens law and different regimes of E/p in a discharge, Townsend discharge and the evolution of a discharge.
Plasma diagnostics: Probes, energy analyzers, magnetic probes and optical diagnostics, preliminary concepts.

Unit-II
Single particle orbit theory: Drift of charged particles under the effect of different combinations of electric and magnetic fields. Crossed electric and magnetic fields. Homogeneous electric and magnetic fields, spatially varying electric and magnetic fields, time varying electric and magnetic fields, particle motion in large amplitude waves.
Fluid description of plasmas: distribution function and Liouvilles equation

Unit-III
Waves in fluid plasmas: dielectric constant of field free plasma, plasma oscillations, space charge waves of warm plasma, dielectric constant of a cold magnetized plasma
Stability of fluid plasma: The equilibrium of plasma, plasma instabilities, stability analysis, two stream instability of Alfven waves, Plasma supported against gravity of magnetic field, energy principles

Unit-IV
Kinetic description of plasma: microscopic equations for many body systems, statistical equations for a many body system, Vlasov equation and its properties, drift kinetics equation and its properties.
Waves in Vlasov Plasma: Vlasov equation and its linearization, solutions of linearized Vlasov equation, theories of Langumuir waves, Landau damping, Ion acoustic waves, drift waves in magnetized plasma

Unit-V
Non-linear plasma theories: Non liner electrostatic waves, solitons, shocks, non-linear Landau damping.
Thermo-nuclear fusion: Status, problems and technological requirements.
Applications of cold low pressure and thermal plasmas.

Text Book and References

  1. Introduction to Plasma Physics, FF Chen
  2. Principles of plasma Physics, Krall and Trieveliece
  3. Introduction to Plasma theory; D R Nicholson
  4. The Plasma state: J.L. Shohet
  5. Introduction to plasma physics; M. Uman
  6. Principles of plasma diagnostic, I H Hutchinson
  7. Plasma diagnostic techniques, RH Huddelstone and SL Leonard


M. Sc. II Physics
Paper-XVI (Elective)
Environmental Physics

Unit-I

Essentials of Environmental physics: Structure and thermodynamics of the atmosphere, composition of air, green house effect, Transport of matter, energy and momentum in nature, stratification and stability of atmosphere, laws of motion, hydrostatic equilibrium, General circulation of the tropics, Elements of weather and climate of India.

Unit-II
Solar and terrestrial radiations: Physics of radiations, interaction of light with matter, Rayleigh and Mie scattering, Laws of radiation (Kirchoffs law, Planks law, Beers law, Wiens displacement law, etc.) solar and terrestrial spectra, UV radiation, Ozon depletion problem, IR absorption energy balance of the earth atmosphere system.

Unit-III
Environmental pollution and degradation: Elementary fluid dynamics, diffusion, turbulence and turbulent diffusion, factors governing air, water, and noise pollution, air and water quality standards, waste disposal heat island effect, land and sea breeze, puffs and plumes and gases and particulate matter, wet and dry depositions.

Unit-IV
Environmental changes and remote sensing: Energy sources and combustion processes, renewable sources of energy, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy, Hydropower, fuel cells, Nuclear energy, Forestry and bio-energy. 

Unit-V
Global and regional climate:  Element of weather and climate stability and vertical motion of air, horizontal motion of air and water, pressure gradient forces, viscous forces, inertia forces, Reynolds number, enhanced green house effect, energy balance, A zero-dimensional green house model. Global climate model.

Text Book and References

  1. The atmosphere, Fedrick K. Lutegens and Edward J. Tarbuk (Ch I and VI)
  2. Dynamic Metrology by Holton J.R. (Third Edition), Academic Press, NY (1992)
  3. The Physoics of monsoon, R.N. Keshavamurthy and M. shanka Rao, Allied Publisher (1992) for Ch-III
  4. Numerical weather predication by G.J. haltiner and R.T. Villians, John Wiley and Sons (1980) for Ch-IV
  5. Principle of air pollution metrology by Tom Lyons and Prillscott, CBS Publisher & distributors
  6. Radar metrology by Henry Saugageot.

 

M. Sc. II Physics
Paper-XVII (Elective)
Displays Physics and Technology

Unit-I
Display Characteristics: Parameters characterizing a display. Human eye, Watt and the steredian, the spectral perception sensitivity of the human eye leading to lumen, candela and lux. Performance of a display, contrast ratio, viewing angel and aperture ration of a pixel.

Display Technologies Overview: Survey over flat panel technologies. Liquid crystal displays, plasma displays, flat CRTs as an off-spring of classical CRTs, vacuum fluorescent displays, field emitter displays, and electro-luminescent displays.

 

 

Unit-II
LCDs, Liquid Crystal Displays: LCDs -non-emissive displays. Crystalline structure and the main properties of nematic, twisted nematic, smectic C and C*, cholesteric and ferroelectric liquid crystals and their electro-optical effects. Passive Matrix LCDs (PM-LCDs) with Super Twist-Nematic Materials (STM) and their addressing with the limitations in multiplexing. Compensation foils, the black state of a display, reflective polarizers , brightness enhancement foils (BEFs). Light control films, displays bistable at zero field,  stabilized cholesteric and ferroelectric displays and the waveforms of their addressing circuits.
AM-LCDs, Active Matrix Displays: Active Matrix LCDs (AM-LCDs). Fabrication, addressing and the compensation of parasitic effects. Transmissive and reflective displays for stationary and portable systems as well as light-valves in projectors. Battery operated displays, power saving addressing schemes. PM- and AM-LCDs with plastic substrates, and their application - especially for portable systems. The fabrication of color filters, the cell assembly.

Unit-III
Phosphor Materials: Phosphors, wide variety of phosphor materials. Phosphor excitation mechanisms of luminescence, electro-luminescence, vacuum fluorescence and gas discharge. Materials chemistry, phosphor processing, phosphor doping or activation, phosphor luminous, and voltage and current sensitivity. Coulomb aging and thermal effects . Limits of phosphor performance relative to contrast ratio and gray scale.
FED, Field Emitter Displays: Field emitter displays (FED). Emitter materials, such as metal, silicon, diamond, and negative electron affinity materials, fabrication of cathodes. Processing,  tip formation and sharpening, gate electrode design, and fabrication process control etc. FED design considerations, performance parameters, failure mechanisms, and future challenges.

Unit-IV
Emissive Displays: Electro-luminescent, Light-Emitting Diode and Plasma Displays 
All aspects of electro-luminescent, LED and plasma displays, including the theory of operation, performance, fabrication techniques, failure modes and market applications. Electro-luminescent displays, AC thin film electro-luminescent displays, DC and powder EL displays. Recent advances in GaN-based LED technology and  its implications for the display market. Physical structure, performance, panel size, environmental issues, failure modes, and color. Current and future performance.
OLED, Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays: Small molecule and polymer based organic light emitting device technologies. Understanding of the device operation including basic interface properties, carrier transport and materials. Passive matrix (PM) and Active matrix (AM) addressing schemes. Phosphorescent organic displays, novel device architectures and flexible OLED displays.

Unit-V
Alternative Display Technologies: Projection displays. Performance characteristics of current projection systems based on CRTs, liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS), and digital light processing. Advantages of all-digital systems for projection devices. Head mounted displays. Operating characteristics of head-mounted display technologies based on LCOS, active-matrix EL, and direct retinal scanning.
The Technology of Printable Electronics: Printing technology for printable electronics, Reel to reel printing, Ink-jet printing: current status, Ink-jet printing: future evolution and requirements, Nanoimprint lithography,Offset lithography, Flexographic printing, Future printing technologies. Materials for printable electronics, Conductive and semiconductive inks, Substrates, Other material requirements, Impact of emerging nanomaterials. Thin-film transistors, Displays and “electronic paper” .

Text Book and References

1.Handbook of Display Technology (Illustrated), By Joseph A. Castellano
Hardcover  / 341Pages  / Academic Pr  /  April 1992  /  0121634205.

  • Flat Panel Display Handbook: Technology Trends & Fundamentals
    By Brian T. Fedrow (Editor) Paperback  /  Stanford Resources Inc  /  January 1999  
  • Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays By Shin-Tson Wu, Deng-Ke Yang Hardcover  /  John Wiley & Sons Inc  /  June 2001 .
  • Electronic Displays: Technology, Design and Applications By Jerry C. Whitaker Hardcover  /  McGraw-Hill  /  January 1994  
  • Applications for Electronic Displays: Technologies and Requirements (Illustrated)
    By Sol Sherr Hardcover  /  351 Pages  /  Wiley-Interscience  /  March 1998  
  • Materials for Display and Printing Technologies By Land Hardcover  /  Elsevier Science Ltd  /  May 2000  
  • Electronic Display Measurement: Concepts, Techniques, and Instrumentation (Illustrated)
    By Peter A. Keller, Society for Information Display Hardcover  /  326 Pages  /  Wiley-Interscience  /  September 1997  / 
  • Projection Displays (Illustrated) By Edward H. Stupp (Editor), Matthew S. Brennesholtz (Editor)
    Hardcover  /  418 Pages  /  John Wiley & Son Ltd  / 
  • Advanced Flat Panel Display Technologies By Peter S. Friedman (Editor)
    Paperback  /  Society of Photo Optical  /  February 1994  /  0819414697
  • Printed Organic and Molecular Electronics      Author(s): Gamota, Daniel; Brazis, Paul; Kalyanasundaram, Krishna; Zhang, Jie /1st Edition ISBN:  1402077076  
  • Phosphor handbook- By Shigu. Shionoya and W.M. Yen, CRC Press 


M. Sc. II Physics
Paper-XVIII (Elective)
Molecular Electronics

Unit-I:
Fundamental aspects of molecular electronics:

Unit-II
Electron transport in molecules:

Unit-III
Molecular self-assembly and nanofabrication, single molecule detection and manipulation.

Unit-IV
 Molecular wires, quantum dots, switches and motors

Unit-V
DNA computing, nanotubes and organic transistors, DNA transistor

Text Book and References

There is no prescribed textbook for the course, but following are the reference books and materials.

  • Molecular Electronics  Author(s): Jortner, J.; Ratner, M.; Jortner,   Joshua  /  1st Edition
  • Dna-based Molecular Electronics: International Symposium On Dna-based Molecular Electronics Author(s): Fritzsche,   Wolfgang  /  1st Edition
  • Introduction to Molecular Electronics,  Author(s): Petty, M. C. and M. Bryce (Oxford University Press, New York)  /  1st Edition
  • Materials, Physics and Devices for Molecular Electronics and Photonics ,  Author(s): Zyss,   J.; Garnier, F.  /  ISBN:  0444205195 
  • Molecular Electronics: Materials and Methods ,  Author(s): Lazarev,  P.I.  /  ISBN: 0792311965 / 
  • Molecular Electronics: Science and Technology, Author(s): Aviram, Ari;    Ratner, Mark  /  1st Edition  ISBN:  0801863023 / 
  • Molecular Electronics: Properties, Dynamics, and Applications  Author(s): Mahler,  Gunter;   May, Volkhard; Schreiber,   Michael  /  ISBN:  0824795261 /  Hardcover /  02/01/1996
  • Organic Conductors, Superconductors, and Magnet: From synthesis to molecular electronics,    Author(s): Ouahab, L. and Yagubskii, E.  /  1st Edition ISBN:  1402019424 /  Paperback /  04/01/2004
  • Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems Supriyo Datta  Cambridge University Press 1995
  • Physical and Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes  R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M.S. Dresselhaus, Imperial College Press 1998
  • Molecular Electronics: Commercial Insights, Chemistry, Devices, Architecture  and  Programming, J M Tour, World Scientific, Singapore, 2003, ISBN
  • Nanotechnology: basic science and emerging technologies / Michael Wilson Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRA, c2002
  • Molecular Electronics and Molecular Electronic Devices Author(s): Sienicki, Kristof, ISBN:  0849380618, Pub. Date:  4/1/1993,  Publisher(s): CRC Pr I Llc





M.Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XIX (Elective)

Materials Science

Unit-I.
Phase diagrams: The phase rule, free energy composition diagram, correlation between free energy and phase diagram, calculation of phase boundaries, thermodynamics of solutions, single component system, two component system containing two phases and three phases, Binary phase diagrams of Cu-Ni and Sb-Bi systems, lever principle, maximum, minimum, super lattice, miscibility gap, microstructure changes during cooling, application to zone refining.
Phase transformations: Time scale for phase changes, peritectic reaction, eutectoide and eutectic transformations, order disorder transformation, transformation diagrams, dendritic structure in alloys, transformation on heating and cooling, grain size effect on rate of transformation at constant temperature and on continuous cooling, grain size effect on rate of transformation, nucleation kinetics, growth kinetics, interface kinetics leading to the crystal growth.

Unit - II:
Diffusion  in solids:  Ficks laws and their solutions, the Kirkendall effect, mechanism of diffusion, temperature dependence of diffusion co-efficient, self diffusion, interstitial diffusion, the Snoek effect diffusion, diffusion in ionic crystals, diffusion path other than the crystal lattice, thermal vibrations and activation energy, diffusion of carbon in Iron.
Solid electrolytes: Theory of solid electrolytes, solid state batteries, solar cells and their applications.
 
Unit-III:
Preparative methods: Solid State reaction, epitaxy, topotaxy, examples of solid state reactions, Li4SiO4, YBa2Cu3O7, Na b/b alumina.
Sol-gel methods- synthesis of MgAl2O4 synthesis of silica glass - spinning of alumina fibers -preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO) and other coating Fabrication of YSZ ceramics preparation of alumina based abrasives.
Use of homogeneous, single source precursors Hydrothermal synthesis Intercalation and deintercalation vapor phase transport Combustion synthesis Crystal growth techniques High pressure methods.
Film deposition techniques and processes: Introduction, vacuum systems Evaporation Molecular beam epitaxy Sputter deposition Chemical vapor deposition Laser ablation Electroplating.

Unit-IV:
Electroactive polymers: Conducting polymers redox polymers and conjugated polymers: Preparation chemical and electrochemical synthesis coating methods polyaromatic polymer films linear polyene polymers synthesis, characterization, redox properties, charge transport mechanism and applications with special reference to nafion.    
Properties of materials: Dielectric behaviors of materials Polarization phenomenon spontaneous polarization dielectric constant and loss Piezo- and Ferro-electricity.
Luminescence: Characteristic luminescence KCl, ZnS phosphors, growth decay, quenching and simulation. 
Mechanical properties of materials Concept of stress and strain elastic properties  - tensile properties Hardness
Corrosion and degradation of materials electrochemical considerations passivity forms of corrosion corrosion inhibition.

Unit-V:
Solid state characterization techniques: X-ray diffraction – Introduction – basic principles – experimental considerations – applications, structure determination, phase analysis, grain size analysis.
Microscopic techniques – SEM, AFM and STEM.
Thermal analysis – Principle and applications of thermo-gravometric analysis – differential thermal analysis – differential scanning calorimetry.
Spectroscopic techniques – Photoacoustic spectroscopy – principle – instrumentation-applications.
Photoelectron spectroscopy – Instrumentation – solid state surface studies – surface charging and calibration problems – Valence energy level studies – UV photoelectron spectra – X-ray photoelectron spectra – Auger electron spectroscopy.

Reference and Text Books:

  • Basic Solid State Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Anthony R. West, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  • New Directions in Solid State Chemistry, C.N.R Rao and J. Gopalkrishnan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.
  • Chemical approaches to the synthesis of inorganic materials, C.N.R. Rao Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1994.
  • Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction, W.D. Callister Jr. John Wiley & Sons, 1991.
  • Materials Science, J. C. Anderson, K. D. Leaver, R.D. Rawlings and J.M. Alexander, 4th Edition, Chapman & Hall (1994).
  • Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization by C. Richards Brundle, C.A. Evans. Jr and S. Wilson, Butterworth, 1992.
  • Spectroscopy Vol 3. B.P. Straughan and S. Walker, Chapman and Hall, 1976.
  • Spectroscopy in Catalysis, J.W. Niemantsverdriet, VCH, 1995.
  • Instrumental Methods of analysis, Willard, Merritt, Dean and Settle, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, Sixth Edition, 1986.
  • P. Ganguly and C.N.R. Rao.”Photoacoustic spectroscopy of solids and surfaces: Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci) 99(1981)153-214.
  • Chemistry of Advance Materials – An overview, Leonard V. Interrante and Mark J. Hampden-Smith (Ed) Wiley-VCH, 1998.
  • Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Hari Singh Nalwa, Academic Press (1998).
  • Environmental photochemistry with semiconductor nanoparticles by P.V. Kumar and K. Vinodgopal in Organic and Inorganic Photochemistry edited by V. Ramamurthy and Kirk S. Schanze, Marcel Dekker Inc (1998).
  • Advances in Polymer Science – Vol 84 (1988) Following articles (i) Electrochemistry and electrode applications of Electroactive/conductive polymer – A.F. Diaz, J.F. Rubinson and H.B. Mark, JA (ii) Polymer coated electrodes: New materials for science and industries, M. Kaneko and D. Wohrle.
  • Application of Electroactive polymers – Bruno Scrosati, Chapman & Hall (1993)
  • Electrochemical Science and Technology of Polymers Vol. 1 & 2 – R.G. Linford, Elsevier (1990).


M.Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XX (Elective)

X-ray spectroscopy

Unit I
Production of X-rays and Physical Crystallography: Various types of demountable and sealed X-ray tubes. Production of X-rays. Efficiency of X-ray production. Continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra. X-ray emission from thick and thin targets. High tension and vacuum techniques.
Isochromats: Principles of Bremsstrahlung and characteristic isochromats.
Synchrotron radiation: Production and properties of radiation from storage rings, Insertion devices. Pelletron as source of X-rays.
Classification of crystals. Symmetry elements. Crystal systems. Point groups. Space groups. Reciprocal lattice.

Unit II
Absorption of X-rays and X-ray Fluorescence: Absorption of X-rays. Physical process of x-ray absorption. Measurement of X-ray absorption coefficients. Units of dose and intensity. Radiography. Microradiography and their applications.
X-ray fluorescence. Auger effect. Fluorescence yield. X-ray fluorescence analysis and its applications.
Techniques and applications of Auger electron spectroscopy. Photoelectron spectroscopy. Proton induced X-ray emission. Electron probe micro analyser.

Unit III
X-ray Spectroscopy:    Experimental techniques of wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bragg and double crystal spectrometers. Focussing spectrographs. Tangential incidence grating spectrographs. Methods of detection and measurement.
X-ray emission and absorption spectra. Energy level diagram. Dipole, forbidden and satellite lines. Regular and irregular doublets. Relative intensity of X-ray lines.
Chemical effects in X-ray spectra. Fine structures (XANES and EXAFS) associated with the absorption edges and their applications. X-ray spectroscopy with synchrotron sources. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of the solid state.

Unit IV
Scattering and Dispersion of X-rays: Scattering of X-rays. Thomson scattering. Polarisation of X-rays. Compton scattering. Wave mechanical treatment of scattering. Scattering by a pair of electrons. Scattering by a helium atom. Scattering by many electrons. Raman’s theory of X-ray scattering. Experiments on scattering by monatomic and polyatomic gases, liquids and amorphous solids. 
Dispersion theory applied to X-rays. Calculation of the dielectric constant. Refraction of X-rays. Methods for measurement of refractive index. X-ray optics and X-ray microscopy.

Unit V
Diffraction of X-rays: Diffraction of X-rays by crystals. Atomic and crystal structure factors. Amplitude of scattering by a crystal. Different factors affecting the intensity of diffraction lines.
The integrated intensity of reflection. Temperature effect. Debye-Waller factor.
Experimental methods of structure analysis. Laue method. Debye Scerrer method. Rotation–oscillation method. Weisenberg camera. Electron density projections in crystals.
Principles of energy dispersive and time analysis diffractometry.
Structures of metals and alloys. Phase transformations. Order-diosrde phenomenon. Super lattice lines. Determination of grain size. Study of nano- particles.
Use of synchrotron radiation in structural studies.
Electron and neutron diffraction techniques and their applications. Comparison with X-ray diffraction.
Small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and their applications.

Text and Reference Books

  • A.H. Compton and S.K. Allison: X-rays in Theory and Experiment
  • G.L. Clark: Applied X-rays
  • Sproull: X-rays
  • J.A. Nielsen and D. Mc Morrow: Elements of Modern X-ray Physics
  • A.G. Michette and C.J. Buckley: X-ray Science and Technology
  • M.A. Blokhin: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • B.K. Agarwal: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • E.P. Bertin: Principles and Practice of X-ray Spectrometric Analysis
  • L.V. Azaroff: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • C. Bonnelle and C. Mande: Advances in X-ray Spectroscopy
  • D.C. Koningsberger and R. Prins: X-ray Absorption Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES
  • N.F.M. Henry, H. Lipson and W.A. Wooster: The interpretation of X-ray Diffraction Photographs
  • K. Lonsdale: Crystals and X-rays
  • B.D. Cullity: Elements of X-ray Diffraction
  • M.M. Woollfson: X-ray Crystallography
  • M.J. Buerger: X-ray Crystallography
  • C. Kunz: Synchrotron Radiation
  • Bacon: Neutron Physics


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-XXI (Elective)

Laser & Laser Applications and Fibre Optics

Laser Applications

Unit-I
Laser characteristics: Gaussian beam and its properties, Stable two minor optical resonators, Longitudinal and transverse modes of laser cavity, Mode selection, Gain in the regenerative laser cavity, Threshold for 3 and 4 levels laser systems, mode locking pulse shortening pico-second and femto-second operations, Spectral narrowing and stabilization

Unit-II
Laser system: Ruby laser, Nd-YAG Laser, Semiconductor lasers, Diode pump solid state lasers, Nitrogen laser, Carbon dioxide laser, Excimer laser, Dye laser, high power laser systems.

Unit-III
Laser spectroscopic techniques and other applications: Laser fluorescence and Raman scattering and their use in pollution studies, non-linear interaction of light with matter, Laser induced multi-photon processes and their applications, Ultra high resolution spectroscopy with lasers and its applications,

Unit-IV
Propagation of light in a medium with variable refractive index, optical fibers, light wave communication, qualitative of medical and engineering applications of lasers.
Basic characteristics of optical fiber: Numerical aperture, Coherence bundle, Attenuation in optical fiber,  Pulse dispersion in step index optical fiber, Loss mechanism


Unit-V
Propagation characteristics:  Scalar modes in weakly guiding approximation, Model analysis for a step index fiber, Fraction model power in the core.
Single mode fiber: Gaussian approximation, Splice loss, Petermann-2 spot size, Far field patter.
Graded index fiber: Model analysis of parabolic index fiber, LPlm modes, Multimode fibers with optimum profiles.   

 

Text Book and References

1.   Laser: Svelto
2.   Optical electronics: Wariv
3.   Laser spectroscopy: Demtroder
4.   Non-linear spectroscopy: Etekhov
5.   Introduction to Fiber optics, A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Cambridge University Press.


M. Sc. –II Physics
Paper-XXII (Elective)

Quantum Many-body Physics & Nonlinear Dynamics



Quantum Many Body Physics

Unit-I 

Formation of second quantization: Wavefunctions for identical particles, symmetrized basis for Fermions and Bosons, one particle & two-particle operators and their matrix elements in symmetrized basis, Number space representation of the basis, creation and annihilation operators. Equation of motion for operators in umber space.
Simple applications: Electron gas: Hartee Fock approximation, ground stage energy and single particle energy in Paramagnetic and Ferromagnetic states. Role of exchange term, Ground state of interacting Bosons, Bose-einstein condensate. Spectrum of elementary excitations. Superfluidity.


Unit-II
Green’s functions and Linear response theory:  One particle and two particle Green’s functions, Ground state energy and linear response in terms of Green’s functions, Analytic properties of Green’s functions.
Perturbation theory: Interaction representation, Gall-Mann-Low theorem for ground state energy, Perterbation expansion for Green’s functions, Wick’s theorem, digrametic representation, Dyson’s equation, self energy, polarization.
Application to interacting Fermi gas: Dilute Fermi gas, Landau theory, screening of Coulomb interaction. 

Nonlinear Dynamics


Unit-III
Introduction to Dynamical systems: Physics of non-linear systems, dynamical equations and constants of motion, phase space, fixed points, stability analysis, bifurcations and their classifications. Poincare section and iterative map.

 

Unit-IV
Dissipative systems: One-dimensional noninvertible maps, simple and strange attractors, iterative maps, period doubling and universality, intermittency, invariant measure, Lyapunov exponents, higher-dimensional systems, Henon map, Lorentz equation, Fractal geometry, generalized dimensions, examples of fractals.

Unit-V
Hamiltonian systems: Integrability, Liouville theorem, action-angle variables, introduction to perturbation techniques, KAM theorem, area preserving maps, concepts of chaos and stochasticity.
Advance topics: One selection from quantum chaos, cellular automata and couples map lattice, solitons and completely integrability systems, turbulence.

Text Book and References

  • Oercival and D. Richards: Introduction to Dynamics
  • E.A. Jackson: Nonlinear Dynamics I & II
  • R.L. Devaney: Introduction to dynamical systems.
  • Hao Bai-lin: Chaos
  • A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Lieberman: Regular and stochastic motion
  • M.C. Gutzwiller: Chaos in classical and quantum mechanics
  • E. Ott and M. Tabor


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXIII (Optional)

Condensed Matter Physics-I

Unit-I
Lattice dynamics and optical properties of solids:  Inter-atomic forces and lattice dynamics of simple metals, Ionic and covalent crystals, Optical phonons and dielectric constants, Inelastic neutron scattering, Mossbauer effect, Debye-Waller factor. Anharmonicity, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. Interaction of electrons and phonons with photons.  Direct and indirect transitions. Absorption in insulators,

Unit-II
Polaritons, one-phonon absorption, optical properties of metals, skin effect and anomalous skin effect. Electron-Phonon Interaction:  Interaction of electrons with acoustic and optical phonons. Superconductivity: manifestations of energy gap. Cooper pairing due to phonons, BCS theory of superconductivity, Ginzsburg-Landau theory and application to Josephson effect: d-c Josephson effect, a-c Josephson effect, macroscopic quantum interference.

Unit-III
Vortices and type II superconductors, high temperature superconductor (elementary).

Crystal Physics and X-ray Crystallography: External symmetry elements of crystals. Concept of point group. Influence of symmetry on physical properties; Electrical conductivity. Space groups, derivation of equivalent point positions (with examples from triclinic systems), experimental determination of space group. Principle of powder diffraction method, interpretation of powder photographs, Analytical indexing,

Unit-IV
Ito’s method accurate determination of lattice parameters, Least squares method, Application of powder method, Oscillations and Buerger’s precession methods, Determination of relative structure amplitudes from measured intensities (Lorentz and polarization factor), Fourier representation of electron density, The phase problem, Patterson function.

Unit-V
Exotic solids: Structure and symmetries of liquids, liquid crystal and amorphous solids, aperiodic solids and quasicrystals, Fibonaccy sequence, Penrose lattices and their extension to three dimentions, special carbon solids, Fullerenes, tubules, formation characterization of fullerenes and tubules, Single wall and multi-wall carbon tubules, electronic properties of tubules, Carbon nano-tubules based electronic devices, Definition of properties of nanostructures materials, method of synthesis of nanostructures materials, special experimental technique for characterisation of nanostructures materials, Quantum size effect and its applications.

 

Text and Reference Books

  • Medelung – Introduction to solid state theory
  • Callaway – Quantum theory of Solid state
  • Huang – Theoretical solid state physics
  • Kittel- Quantum theory of solids.
  • X-ray crystallography :Azaroff
  • Elementary dislocation theory :Weertman & Weertman
  • Crystallography for solid state physics: Verma and Srivastava
  • Solid state Physics : Kittel
  • The powder method : Azaroff & Buerger
  • Crystal structure analysis: Buerger
  • Elementary solid state physics: Omar
  • The physics of quasicrystals: Editors. Steinhardt and Ostulond
  • Handbook of Nanostructured  materials and Nanotechnology (Vol 1 to 4):Editor Hari Singh Nalwa.

 


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXIV (Optional)

Condensed Matter Physics-II

Unit-I:
Electron in solids and surface states: Interacting electron gas Hrtree and Hartree Fock approximations. Correlation energy, screening, plasma oscillations, dielectric function of an electron gas in random phase approximations, limiting cases and Friedel oscillations, strongly interacting Fermi systems, elementary introduction to Landau’s quasi particle theory of a Fermi liquid, Strongly correlated electron gas, elementary ideas regarding surface states, metallic surfaces and surface reconstructions.

Unit-II:
Imperfection in crystals: Point defects, shallow impurity states in semiconductors, localized lattice vibration states in solids, vacancies interstitials and color centers in ionic crystals. Mechanism of plastic deformation in solids, stress and strain field of screw and edge dislocations, elastic energy of dislocations, forces between dislocations. Stress needed to operate Frank-Read source, Dislocations in fcc, hcp and bcc lattices, Partial dislocations and stacking fault in closed pack structures.

Unit-III
Disordered systems: Disorder in condensed matter substitutional positional and topographical disorder, short and long-range order, atomic correlation function and structural description of glasses and liquids.
Andersons model for random system and electron localization, mobility edge, qualitative application of the idea to the amorphous semiconductors and hopping conduction.

Unit-IV:
Films and surfaces: Study of surface topography by multiple beam interferometry, condition for accurate determination of step height and film thickness (Fizeau fringes) Electrical conductivity of thin films, difference of behaviour of thin film from bulk, Boltzmann transport equation for a thin film ( For diffused scatting). Expression for electrical conductivity for thin film.

Unit-V:
Experimental methods of observing dislocation and stacking fault. Electron microscopy, kinematical theory of diffraction contrast and lattice imaging.
Elementary concept of surface crystallography, scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy. 

Text and Reference books.


1.   Quantum Theory of solids                      :    Kittel
2.   Theoretical solid state physics,               :    Huang
3.   Quantum theory of solid state                 :    Callaway         
4.   Introduction to solid state theory            :    Modelung
5.   X-ray crystallography                            :    Azaroff
6.   Elementary dislocation theory                  :    Weertman & Weertman
7.   Crystallography for solid state physics      :    Verma and Srivastava
8.   Solid state Physics                               :    Kittel
9.   The powder method                              :    Azaroff & Buerger
10.  Crystal structure analysis                      :    Buerger
11.  Transmission electron microscopy            :    Thomas
12.  Multiple beam interferometry                   :    Tolansky
13.  Thin films                                            :    Heavens
14.  Physics of thin films                              :    Chopra

 


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXV (Optional)

Informatics-I

 Materials and Data Communication

Unit-I
Semiconductor Quantum structures, Hetero-structures, Mismatch Hetero-structures, Coherently Strained structures, Partially relaxed strained layer structures, Methods of formation Hetero-structures, Some of the examples of h Hetero-structures, Bandgap engineering, Strained layer epitaxy, Light emitting diodes, Etched well surface emitting LED, Continuous operation lasers Hetero-quantum lasers, CW Hetero-quantum laser, Stripe Geometry.

 



Unit-II
Fourier series and transforms and their applications to data communication. Introduction to probability and random variables. Introduction to information theory and queuing theory.  Introduction and evolution of telecommunication, Fundamentals of electronic communication: Wired, Wireless, Satellite and optical fiber, Analog/digital, Serial/parallel, Simplex’half and full duplex, Synchronous/Asynchronous, Bit/baud rates, Parity and error control (CRC, LRC, ARQ,, etc), Signal to noise ratio, etc.

 



Unit-III
Transmission types, coded, modes, speed and throughput. Modulation types, techniques and standards. Base band and carrier communication, Detection, Interference, Noise signals and their characterization, phase locked loops.  Modems, Transmission media (guided & unguided), Common interface standards.

Internetworking Technology

Unit-IV
Introduction to Unix and shell scripting.  Conceptual framework of computer language. Introduction to C/C++. Data types and operators, Statements and control flow, Functions and programme structure, Strings, The preprocessor, Pointers, Memory allocation, Input and output, Sub program, Recursion, File access.

 

Unit-V
Object orientation concepts: classes, objects, methods and messages, encapsulation and inheritance, interface and implementation, reuse and extension of classes, inheritance and polymorphism; analysis and design; Notations for object-oriented analysis and design; Case studies and applications using some object oriented programming languages.
Introduction to web enabling technologies and authoring tools/languages (webcasting, database, integration, CGI, pen, Java, HTML, C++, etc.)

Text and Reference Books.
1.   Data communication : Reid and Bartskor
2.   Data Network: Gallager
3.   Data Communication : William Stalling
4.   Communication networks: Leon-Garcia and Widjaja
5.   Introduction to communication system: S. Haykins
6.   Analog and Digital Communication : S. Haykins
7.   Object oriented systems development using : Bahrami A. (McGraw Hill International)
      unified modeling language
8.   Object oriented analysis and design with : G. Booch (Addison Wesley 2nd Edn)
      Applications
9.   Beginning object oriented analysis and design : Lesse Liberty (Wrox Press)
      using C++
10.  An introduction to object oriented programming:Timpthy Budd (2nd Edn. Addison Wesley)


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXVI (Optional)

Informatics-II

Data Communication
 
Unit-I

Multiplexing (FDM, TDM), Switching paradigms (circuit, packet and cell switching), Propagation delay, Clock Synchronization, Network access control (centralized, decentralized, distributed). Overview of satellite communication. Broadcast channels and optical fiber communication system. Power and energy spectra, Distortion less transmission, Signal distortion over a channel.

Unit-II

Bandwidth and rate of transmission, Communication in Noisy channels, Optimum signal detection, Channel capacity, Hartley Shannon law, Error correcting codes, Error control, Line control, Rate control, Repeaters, Concentrators, Regenerators, Link behaviour, Pe, Burst error, Optimum pocket size, Error control, Elementary coding ideas, ATM as a transport mechanism, An overview of telecom network, ISDN.

Internetworking Technology

Unit-III


Network types and architecture (Broad cast, multicast, LAN, WAN, MAN, topology, token ring, FDDI, Cabling) Protocols, interfaces and services, X.25, ISDN, ATM, VPN, frame relay, wireless transmission bridges, TCP/IP and ISOOSI models, Routing, Congestion and flow control, tunneling, internet work routings, data link protocols, multiple access protocols, TCP, UDP transport layer error recovery, application layer services and protocols, IP addressing, network security.

Unit-IV


Evaluation of internet, internet architecture; goals and key issues related to internetworking technologies. Internet connectivity (dial up, dedicated lines, broad band, DSL, radio, VSAT, etc.). Internet security.
Multimedia, technique of data compression, voice, radio, Mbone interactive radio on demand over the internet. Mobile computing.

Unit-V


Fundamentals of network management (NM), Need for NM, element of NM system (Manager, agent and protocol, SNMP), Functional ideas of NM defined by ISO fault management. Configuration management, performance management, security management, accounting management, NM standards, TMN, web base NM (introduction). Case studies: HP open view, IBM net-view, SUN salaries enterprise manager.

Text and Reference Books.
1.Data communication : Reid and Bartskor
2.Data Network : Gallager
3.Data Communication : William Stalling
4.Communication networks : Leon-Garcia and Widjaja
5.Introduction to communication system : S. Haykins
6.Analog and Digital Communication : S. Haykins
7.Multimedia networking : Bohdan O Szuprowicz (Mc. Graw Hill, Singapore1995)
8.Internetworking technology handbook : Marilee Ford (CISCO Press, 1997)
9.Using SET for secure electronic commerce : Grady N. Drew (Printice Hall, 1998)
10.Advance data communication and networking : N. Buchanan (Chapman & Hall, London)
11.The complete guide to interactive corporate networks: Dave K. (John Wiley & Sons NY)
12.Computer networks : W. Stailing (PHI)
13.Computer networks : S. Keshav (Addison Wesley)


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXVII (Optional)

Electronics-I

 

Unit-I

Operational Amplifiers: Differential amplifier circuit configuration dual input balance out put differential amplifier, dc analysis, ac analysis, inverting and non-inverting inputs, CMRR, constant current bias level translator, Block diagram of a typical operational amplifier, analysis, open loop configuration, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, operational amplifier with negative feedback, voltage sires feedback, effect of feedback on close loop gain, input resistance output resistance bandwidth and output offset voltage, voltage follower.

Practical operational amplifier, input offset voltage, input bias current, input off set current, total output off set voltage, CMRR, frequency response, dc and ac amplifier, summing, scaling and averaging amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, integrator and differentiator.
Oscillators principles- oscillator types, frequency stability, response, The phase shift oscillator, Wein bridge oscillator, LC tunable oscillator, multi-vibrators, mono-stable and astable, comparators, square wave and triangular wave generators, Voltage regulators, fixed regulators, and adjustable voltage regulators, switching regulators.

Unit-II
Communication electronics: Amplitude modulation, generation of AM waves, demodulation of AM waves, DS BSC modulation, generation of DSBSC waves, coherent detection of DSBSC wave, SSB modulation, generation and detection of SSB waves, Vestigial sideband modulation, frequency division multiplexing (FDM).
Satellite communication: Satellite communication, orbital satellite, geo-stationery satellite, orbital pattern, look angles, orbital spacing, satellite systems, link modules.
 

Unit-III
Digital Electronics: Combinational logic, A transistor as switch, OR, AND and NOT gates, NOR and NAND gates, Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s, theorem, Exclusive OR gate, Decoder/demultiplexer, Data selector/ multiplexer, Encoder

Sequential logic: Flip flops, 1 bit memory, the RS flip flop, JK flip-flop, JK master slave flip-flop, T flip-flop, D, flip-flop, Shift registers, synchronous and asynchronous counters, Cascade counters.
Microprocessor: Introduction to microcomputers, Memory, input-output devices, interfacing devices. 8085 CPU, architecture, bus timing, de-multiplexing, the address bus, generating control signals, instruction set, addressing modes, illustrative programmes, assembly language programmes, looping, counting and indexing, counters and timing delay, stack and sub-routings.

Unit-IV
Analog and digital system: Analog computation, active filters, comparators, logarithmic and antilogarithmic amplifier, sample and hold amplifier, waveform generators, square and triangular wave generator, Pulse generator, read only memory (ROM) and applications. Random access memory (RAM) and applications, Digital to analogue converters, ladder and weighted register types, analog to digital converters, counter types, successive approximations and dual slop converters, application of DAC and ADC, 

Opto-electronics: Photo-conductors and photo-resisters, junction photo-detector, Curcuit with LED tester, polarity and voltage tester, measuring instruments with LED indication,
LED, numeric and alpha numeric display unit, semiconductor switches and potential isolation, the photo-transistor as a switch in the opto-couplers, steady sate performance, dynamic performance, use of opto-couplers,

Unit-V
Microwave devices: Klystrons, magnetrons, and traveling wave tubes, velocity modulation, basic principle of two cavity klystrons and reflex klystrons, principle of operation of magnetrons, Helix traveling wave tubes, wave modes, transferred electron devices, gunn effect, principle of operation, modes of operation, read diode, IMPATT diode, TRAPATT diode,

Microwave communication: Advantage and disadvantage of microwave transmission, loss in free space propagation of microwaves, atmospheric effect on propagation, Fresnel zone problem, ground refection, fading sources, detector components, antennas used in microwave communication systems.

Radar System: Radar block diagram and operation, radar frequencies, pulse considerations, radar range equation, derivation of radar range equation, minimum detectable signal receive noise, signal to noise ratio, integration of radar pulses, radar cross section, pulse repetition frequency, antenna parameters, system losses and propagation losses, radar transmitters, receivers, antennas, display.

Text and Reference Books.
1.   Electronic devices and circuit theory: Robort Boylested and L. Nashdsky  (PHI, New Delhi)
2.   OP-Amps and linear integrated circuits : Ramakanth A. Gayakwad (PHI 2nd Edn)
3.   Digital principles and Applications: A.P. Malvino and D.P. Laach (Tata Ma-Graw Hill) 
4.   Microprocessor architecture, programming and Application with 8085/8086, Ramesh S. Gaonkar (Wiley-Estern)
5.   Microelectronics : Jacob Millman (Mc-Graw Hill Interna)
6.   Optoelectronics: Theory and Practices : Edited by Alien Chappal (Mc Graw Hill)
7.   Microwaves : K.L. Gupta (Wiley Ester New Delhi)
8.   Advanced electronics communication systems : Wayne Tomasi (Phi Edn)


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXVIII (Optional)

Electronics-II

Unit-I:
Digital Communication: Pulse modulation systems, sampling theorem, low-pass and band-pass signals, PAM channel bandwidth for a PAM signal, Natural sampling, flat top sampling, signal recovery through holding, quantization of signals, quantization, differential PCM delta modulation, adoptive delta modulation CVSD.

Digital modulation techniques.: BPSK, DPSK, QPSK, PSK, QASK, BFSK, FSK, MSK.
Mathematical representation of noise, sources of noise, frequency domain representation of noise, Effect of filtering on the probability density of Gaussian noise, Spectral component of noise, effect of filter on the power spectral density of noise, super position of noises, mixing involving noise, linear filtering, Noise bandwidth, Quadrature components of noise, power spectral density of nc (t), nst and their time derivatives.

Unit-II
Data transmission: Base band signal receiver, probability of error, optimum filter, white noise, match filter, and probability of error, coherent reception, correlation PSK, FSK non-coherent detection of FSK, differential PSK, QPSK, calculation of error probability for BPSK, BFSK and QPSK
Noise in Pulse Code and Delta modulation system, PCM transmission, calculation of quantization of noise, out put signal power effect of thermal noise, out signal to nose ratio in PCM, DM, quantization noise in DM, Out put signal power, DM otput-put, signal to quantization noise ratio, effect of thermal noise in delta modulation, output signal to noise ratio in DM,

Unit-III
Computer communication systems: Types of networks, design features of communication network, examples, TYMNET, ARPANET, ISDN, LAN,
Mobile radio and satellite- time division multiplex access (TDMA) frequency division multiplex access (FDMA) ALOHA, Slotted ALOHA, Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) Poisson distribution protocols,

 



Unit-IV
Microprocessor and Micro-computers: Microprocessor and architecture, Internal microprocessor architecture, real and protected mode of memory addressing, memory paging, Addressing modes, data addressing modes, programme memory addressing mode, stack memory addressing modes, instruction sets, data moment instruction, arithmetic and logic instruction, programme control instruction, assembler details.

Programming the microprocessor: Modular programming using the key board and video display, data conversion, disk files, example programmes.
Hardware specifications; Pin out and pin functions, clock generator (8284A) bus buffering and latching, Bus timings, ready and wait states, minimum mode versus and maximum mode, 

Unit-V
Memory devices: address decoding, 8088, 80188 (8 bit) memory interface 8086, 80186, 80286 and 80386 (16 bits) Memory interface-80386DX and 80486(32 bit) memory interface, Dynamic RAM, Basic I/O interface, Introduction to I/O interface, I/O port address decoding, 8255, 8279, 8254, 16550, ADC and DAC (Excluding multiplex displayed and key board display using 8255).
Interrupts: Basic interrupt processing, Hardware interrupt, expanding the interrupt structure, 8259A PIC.
Direct memory access: Basic DMA operations, 8237 DMA controller, Shared bus operation, Disk memory systems, Video display.

Text and Reference Books.

  • Principles of communication systems : Taub and Schilling (2nd Edn THM, 1994)
  • Communication systems : Simon Haykin (3rdEdn John Wiley & Sons)
  • The Intel microprocessors 8086/80188, 80386, 80486, Pentium and Pentium pro processor architecture, programming and interfacing: Barry B. Brey (PHI 4th Edn, 1999)
  • Microprocessor and interfacing, programming and hardware : Douglas V. Hall (2nd Edn, Mc Graw Hill International edn. 1992.)
  • The 80x86 IBM PC compatible computers: Muhammad Ali Maxidi and J.G. Mazidi (2nd Edn. Prentice-Hall International)


M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXIX (Optional)

Materials Science-I

Unit-I.
Equilibrium and Kinetics: Stability and metastability, Basic thermodynamic functions, Statistical nature of entropy, Kinetics of thermally activated process.
Phase diagrams: The phase rule, free energy composition diagram, correlation between free energy and phase diagram, calculation of phase boundaries, thermodynamics of solutions, single component system (water), two component system containing two phases and three phases, Binary phase diagrams having intermediate phases, Binary phase diagrams with eutectic system. Lever principle, maximum, minimum, super lattice, miscibility gap, microstructure changes during cooling, application to zone refining.

Unit - II
Phase transformations: Time scale for phase changes, peritectic reaction, eutectoide and eutectic transformations, order disorder transformation, transformation diagrams, dendritic structure in alloys, transformation on heating and cooling, grain size effect on rate of transformation at constant temperature and on continuous cooling, grain size effect on rate of transformation, nucleation kinetics, growth kinetics, interface kinetics leading to the crystal growth.
Diffusion in solids: Fick’s laws and their solutions, the Kirkendall effect, mechanism of diffusion, temperature dependence of diffusion co-efficient, self diffusion, interstitial diffusion, the Snoek effect in diffusion, diffusion in ionic crystals, diffusion path other than the crystal lattice, thermal vibrations and activation energy, diffusion of carbon in iron.

Unit- III 
Preparative methods: Solid State reaction, epitaxy, topotaxy, examples of solid state reactions, BaTiO3, Li4SiO4, YBa2Cu3O7, Na b/b’ alumina.
Sol-gel methods- synthesis of MgAl2O4 – synthesis of silica glass - spinning of alumina fibers -preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO) and other coating – Fabrication of YSZ ceramics – preparation of alumina based abrasives.
Use of homogeneous, single source precursors – Hydrothermal synthesis – Intercalation and deintercalation – vapor phase transport – Combustion synthesis – Crystal growth techniques – High pressure methods.
Film deposition techniques and processes: Introduction, vacuum systems – Evaporation – Molecular beam epitaxy – Sputter deposition – Chemical vapor deposition – Laser ablation – Electroplating.

Unit – IV 
Solid state characterization techniques: X-ray diffraction – Introduction – basic principles – experimental considerations – applications, structure determination, phase analysis, grain size analysis. Microscopic techniques – SEM, AFM and STEM.
Thermal analysis – Principle and applications of thermo-gravometric analysis – differential thermal analysis – differential scanning calorimetry.
Spectroscopic techniques – Photoacoustic spectroscopy – principle – instrumentation-applications.
Photoelectron spectroscopy – Instrumentation – solid state surface studies – surface charging and calibration problems – Valence energy level studies – UV photoelectron spectra – X-ray photoelectron spectra – Auger electron spectroscopy.
Special experimental techniques for characterization of nano-structure materials.

Unit - V
Disordered systems: Point defects, the geometry of dislocations, surface imperfections, Burger vector, tensile stress, strain curve, creep cure, plastic deformation by slip and twinning, shear strength of perfect crystals.
Shallow impurity states in semiconductors, localized lattice vibration states in solids, vacancies interstitials and color centers in ionic crystals.
Disorder in condensed matter: substitutional positional and topographical disorder, short and long-rage order, atomic correlation function and structural description of glasses and liquids.
Andersons model for random system and electron localization, mobility edge, qualitative application of the idea to the amorphous semiconductors and hopping conduction.

Reference and Text Books:

  • Vanvellak: Materials Science.
  • V. Raghvan: Materials Science,
  • D. Kingery : Introduction to ceramics.
  • R.E. Reedhil: Physical metallurgy.
  • Martin Start Sharger: Introductory materials.
  • Sinnot: Solid state for engineers.
  • Kelly and Groves: Crystal and defects.
  • Kittel: Solid state physics, Vth edition.  
  • Introduction to solid state theory: Modelung  

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXX (Optional)
Materials Science-II

Unit-I
Electroactive polymers: Conducting polymers – redox polymers and conjugated polymers: Preparation – chemical and electrochemical synthesis – coating methods – polyaromatic polymer films – linear polyene polymers – synthesis, characterization, redox properties, charge transport mechanism and applications with special reference to nafion.    
Optical materials: Transparency, opacity, colour of crystals and glasses, applications to lasers photon detectors, elementary ideas of non-linear optics.
Luminescence: Characteristic luminescence – KCl, ZnS phosphors, growth – decay, quenching and simulation. 
Mechanical properties of materials – Concept of stress and strain – elastic properties  - tensile properties – Hardness
Corrosion and degradation of materials – electrochemical considerations – passivity – forms of corrosion – corrosion inhibition.

Unit-II

Dielectric properties: Frequency, temperature and dc field effect. Ferroelectric and antiferoelectric materials and their applications, dielectric dispersion, loss mechanism in ferroelectrics, dielectric relaxation effect, stress-strain tensor application to cubic crystals, anisotropic materials, piezoelectric materials, piezoelectric coupling constant applicationapplication-Transducers.
Structure and symmetries of liquids, liquid crystals and amorphous solids. Aperiodinc solids and quasicrystals; Fibonaccy sequence, Penrose lattice and their extension to 3-dimensions.
Importance of oxides in metallurgy – Ionic and electronic conduction  - diffusion – application in sensors and electronic devices – ferrite materials crystal structure of spinel ferrites – magnetic and electrical properties. – applications. 

Unit-III

Nanostructured materials: Nanoparticles – Definition – size-relationship of chemistry,  Nanoparticles and solid-state physics – Nanoparticles of metals, semiconductors and oxides – Synthesis – physical and chemical methods – Bottom up: cluster beam evaporation, Ion beam deposition, Gas evaporation,  Chemical bath deposition with capping techniques and top down: Ball milling.  Solvated metal atom dispersion – thermal decomposition – reduction methods – colloidal and micellar approach.
Physical properties of nanomaterials – finite size effect – surface/interface effects – solubility – supermagnetism – optical and electronic properties.
Special carbon solids; Fullerenes and tubules; formation and characterization of fullerenes and tubules. Single wall and multi-wall carbon tubules. Electronic properties of tubules. Carbon nanotubule based electronic devices. Quantum size effect and its applications.  

Unit-IV

Solid State Ionics: Definition, classification and characteristic properties of solid electrolytes. Complex impedance spectroscopy, Arrhenius theory of ionic conductivity.
Chemical sensors: Nernst equation, potentiometer and amperometric sensors for various gases, electrochemical redox-reaction, advantages of electrochemical sensors.
Solid-state battery: Primary and secondary solid state cells, advantages of lithium batteries, ion intercalation compounds for secondary cell, open circuit voltage and short circuit current, Energy density, power density.  
Fuel cells – definition – history – advantages and disadvantages – classification – efficiency – emf of fuel cells - hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell – criteria for the selection of electrode and electrolyte – methanol fuel cell – solid oxide fuel cells – phosphoric acid fuel cells – molten carbonate fuel cell – proton exchange membrane fuel cell – biochemical fuel cell.

Unit-V

Alternative energy technologies:  Fundamentals of photovoltaic energy conversion, Physics and materials properties, basic to photovoltaic energy conversion, Optical properties of solids, Direct and indirect transition semiconductors, interrelationship between absorption coefficients and band gap recombination of carriers.  Types of solar cells, p-n junction solar cell, transport equation. Photoelectrochemical cells.
The concept of hydrogen economy – merits of hydrogen fuel – Solar hydrogen through Photo-electrolysis and Photo-catalytic process. Physics and material characteristics for production of solar hydrogen.
Hydrogen storage materials – Brief discussion of various storage processes, special features of solid state hydrogen storage materials, structural and electronic characteristics of storage materials, metal hydrides – types of hydrides – evaluation of hydrogen storage capacity – potential applications.
Reference and Text Books:
  • Basic Solid State Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Anthony R. West, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  • New Directions in Solid State Chemistry, C.N.R Rao and J. Gopalkrishnan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.
  • Chemical approaches to the synthesis of inorganic materials, C.N.R. Rao Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1994.
  • Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction, W.D. Callister Jr. John Wiley & Sons, 1991.
  • Materials Science, J. C. Anderson, K. D. Leaver, R.D. Rawlings and J.M. Alexander, 4th Edition, Chapman & Hall (1994).
  • Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization by C. Richards Brundle, C.A. Evans. Jr and S. Wilson, Butterworth, 1992.
  • Spectroscopy Vol 3. B.P. Straughan and S. Walker, Chapman and Hall, 1976.
  • Spectroscopy in Catalysis, J.W. Niemantsverdriet, VCH, 1995.
  • Instrumental Methods of analysis, Willard, Merritt, Dean and Settle, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, Sixth Edition, 1986.
  • P. Ganguly and C.N.R. Rao.”Photoacoustic spectroscopy of solids and surfaces: Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci) 99(1981)153-214.
  • Chemistry of Advance Materials – An overview, Leonard V. Interrante and Mark J. Hampden-Smith (Ed) Wiley-VCH, 1998.
  • Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Hari Singh Nalwa, Academic Press (1998).
  • Environmental photochemistry with semiconductor nanoparticles by P.V. Kumar and K. Vinodgopal in Organic and Inorganic Photochemistry edited by V. Ramamurthy and Kirk S. Schanze, Marcel Dekker Inc (1998).
  • Advances in Polymer Science – Vol 84 (1988) Following articles (i) Electrochemistry and electrode applications of Electroactive/conductive polymer – A.F. Diaz, J.F. Rubinson and H.B. Mark, JA (ii) Polymer coated electrodes: New materials for science and industries, M. Kaneko and D. Wohrle.
  • Application of Electroactive polymers – Bruno Scrosati, Chapman & Hall (1993)
  • Electrochemical Science and Technology of Polymers Vol. 1 & 2 – R.G. Linford, Elsevier (1990).
  • Solar Energy Conversion: The solar cell – R.C. Neville, Elsevier, 1978.
  • Fuel Cells – A. Mcdougall, Macmillan 1976 Ch 3,5,7,8 and 11.
  • Fuel Cells by J.O.M. Bockris and S. Srinivasan, McGraw Hill, 1969
  • Nature, Vol 414 (2001) p332.
  • Chemical and Electrochemical Energy System – R. Naran and B. Viswanathan, University Press. 
  • Hydrogen as an energy carrier technologies Systems economy, Winter & Nitch.
  • Solar cell Devices-Physics: Fonash
  • Fundamentals of solar cells photovoltaic solar energy: Fahrenbruch & Bube
  • Photo-electrochemical solar cells: Chandra

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXXI (Optional)

X-rays spectroscopy and crystallography -I

Unit I
Continuous and Characteristic X-rays: Various types of demountable and sealed X-ray tubes. Production of X-rays. Efficiency of X-ray production. Continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra. X-ray emission from thick and thin targets.
Basics of high-tension circuits and vacuum systems used for the operation of X-ray tubes.
Isochromats: Principles of Bremsstrahlung and characteristic isochromats
Synchrotron radiation: Production and properties of radiation from storage rings, Insertion devices.
Pelletron as source of X-rays.

Unit II

Absorption of X-rays and X-ray FluorescenceAbsorption of X-rays. Physical process of X-ray absorption. Measurement of X-ray absorption coefficients. Units of dose and intensity. Radiography. Microradiography and their applications.
X-ray fluorescence. Auger effect. Fluorescence yield. X-ray fluorescence analysis and its applications.
Techniques and applications of Auger electron spectroscopy, Photoelectron spectroscopy, Proton induced X-ray emission, Electron probe micro analyser.

Unit III

X-ray Spectroscopy: Experimental techniques of wavelength and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Bragg and double crystal spectrographs. Focussing spectrographs. Tangential incidence grating spectrographs. Dispersion and resolving power of spectrographs, Photographic and other methods of detection and measurement, Resolving power of detectors.
X-ray emission and absorption spectra. Energy level diagram. Dipole and forbidden lines, Satellite lines and their origin, Regular and irregular doublets. Relative intensity of X-ray lines.

Unit IV

Chemical Effects in X-ray Spectra: Chemical effects in X-ray spectra. White line, Chemical shifts of absorption edges, Fine structures (XANES and EXAFS) associated with the absorption edges and their applications. X-ray spectroscopy with synchrotron sources.
Soft X-ray spectroscopy of metals and alloys, Applications to semiconductors and insulators

Unit V

Dispersion Theory: Dispersion theory applied to X-rays, Calculation of the dielectric constant, Significance of the complex dielectric constant, Refraction of X-rays, Methods for measurement of refractive index.
X-ray optics and X-ray microscopy. Design of beam lines for synchrotron applications.
Reference and Text Books:
  • A.H. Compton and S.K. Allison: X-rays in Theory and Experiment
  • G.L. Clark: Applied X-rays
  • Sproull: X-rays
  • J.A. Nielsen and D. Mc Morrow: Elements of Modern X-ray Physics
  • A.G. Michette and C.J. Buckley: X-ray Science and Technology
  • M.A. Blokhin: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • B.K. Agarwal: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • E.P. Bertin: Principles and Practice of X-ray Spectrometric Analysis
  • L.V. Azaroff: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • C. Bonnelle and C. Mande: Advances in X-ray Spectroscopy
  • D.C. Koningsberger and R. Prins: X-ray Absorption Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES
  • N.F.M. Henry, H. Lipson and W.A. Wooster: The interpretation of X-ray Diffraction Photographs
  • K. Lonsdale: Crystals and X-rays
  • B.D. Cullity: Elements of X-ray Diffraction
  • M.M. Woollfson: X-ray Crystallography
  • M.J. Buerger: X-ray Crystallography
  • C. Kunz: Synchrotron Radiation
  • Bacon: Neutron Physics
 

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXXII (Optional)
X-rays spectroscopy and crystallography -II

Unit I
Crystal Morphology and Symmetry Properties: Solids and symmetry elements: Crystalline state, Anisotropy, Symmetry, Self consistency of symmetry operations
Space lattice and unit cell of a crystal, Choice of a unit cell, Crystal systems, Bravais lattices, Space groups and point groups. 
Morphology and angular relationships: Goniometry, Crystal faces and internal arrangement, Miller indices, Law of rational indices, Indices of a direction.
Perspective projections: Gnomonic projection, Stereographic projection, Orthographic projection.
Reciprocal lattice concept: Graphical construction, Relation to interplanar spacings, Interpretation of Bragg’s law.

Unit II

Scattering of X-rays: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, Wave mechanical treatment of scattering, Scattering by a pair of electrons, Theory of scattering by a helium atom, Scattering by many electrons, Raman’s classical theory of X-ray scattering, Raman effect in X-ray scattering, Basic interactions in X-ray scattering, Experiments on scattering by monatomic and polyatomic gases, liquids and amorphous solids.

Unit III

Physical Basis of X-ray Crystallography:           Atomic and crystal structure factors, Structure factor calculations,          The integrated  intensity of reflection. Different factors affecting the intensity of diffraction lines in a powder pattern. The sources of systematic errors and methods of attaining precision.
Dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction.
The Fourier series, Numerical applications, Fourier series in two and three dimensions, The Fourier transform, Electron density projections in crystals, Application to X-ray diffraction.
           
Unit IV
Experimental Methods of Structure Analysis: Laue method, Debye Scherrer method, Rotation–Oscillation method, Weisenberg camera, Moving film method, Principles of energy dispersive and time analysis diffractometry.
Methods of detecting and recording diffraction patterns. Resolving power of detectors.
Structures of metals and alloys. Phase transformations, Order-disorder phenomenon. Super lattice lines. Determination of grain size. Study of nano- particles.
Phase problem in structure analysis, The Patterson function, Isomorphous replacement.
Investigation of macro defects by X-ray topography, Berg-Barrett technique, Lang method.
Use of synchrotron radiation in structural studies.

Unit V

Other Diffraction Techniques: Electron and neutron diffraction techniques and their applications. Comparison with X-ray diffraction.
Small angle scattering, Guinier camera, SAXS and SANS, Applications in particle size determination, Study of fibres, Study of submicroscopic heterogeneities in metals and other materials.
Reference and Text Books:
  • A.H. Compton and S.K. Allison: X-rays in Theory and Experiment
  • G.L. Clark: Applied X-rays
  • Sproull: X-rays
  • J.A. Nielsen and D. Mc Morrow: Elements of Modern X-ray Physics
  • A.G. Michette and C.J. Buckley: X-ray Science and Technology
  • M.A. Blokhin: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • B.K. Agarwal: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • E.P. Bertin: Principles and Practice of X-ray Spectrometric Analysis
  • L.V. Azaroff: X-ray Spectroscopy
  • C. Bonnelle and C. Mande: Advances in X-ray Spectroscopy
  • D.C. Koningsberger and R. Prins: X-ray Absorption Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES
  • N.F.M. Henry, H. Lipson and W.A. Wooster: The interpretation of X-ray Diffraction Photographs
  • K. Lonsdale: Crystals and X-rays
  • B.D. Cullity: Elements of X-ray Diffraction
  • M.M. Woollfson: X-ray Crystallography
  • M.J. Buerger: X-ray Crystallography
  • C. Kunz: Synchrotron Radiation
  • Bacon: Neutron Physics
 
 

 

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXXIII (Optional)
Atomic and Molecular Physics (Spectroscopy) -I

 

Unit-I
Basic principles of interaction of spin and applied magnetic field-concepts of NMR spectroscopy-concepts of spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation, Chemical shift, Spin-spin coupling between two and more nuclei (qualitative) experimental set up CW NMR spectrometer, Chemical analysis using NMR.

Unit-II
Mossbauer effect-Recoil less emission of gamma rays, Chemical shift, Magnetic hyperfine interaction, experimental setup
Electron spin resonance, Effects of LS coupling fine and hyperfine structure, g values, Simple experimental setup.

Unit-III
Time dependence in quantum mechanics, Time dependent perturbation theory, Rate expression for emission, Perturbation theory calculation of polarisability, Quantum mechanical expression for emission rate, Time correlation function and spectral Fourier transform pair, Properties of time correlation functions and spectral time shape, Fluctuation dissipation theorem, Rotational correlation function and pure rotational spectra, Re-orientational spectroscopy of liquids.

Unit-IV
Raman effect, Quantum theory, Molecular polarizibility, Pure rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, Vibration rotation Raman spectrum of diatomic molecules, Intensity alterations in Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, Experimental setup for Raman spectroscopy, Application of IR and Raman spectroscopy in the structure determination of simple molecules.

Unit-V
Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, Born Oppenheimer approximation, Vibrational coarse structure of electronic bands, Progression and sequences, intensity of electronic bands, Franck Condon principle, Dissociation and pre dissociation, Dissociation energy, Rotational fine structure of electronic bands, Electronic structure of diatomic (basic ideas only)

Text Book and References
Molecular Spectroscopy: - Jeane L. McHale
  • Molecular Quantum Mechanics- P.W. Alkins and R.S. Fridman
  • Mossbauer spectroscopy- M.R. Bhide
  • NMR and Chemistry- J.W. Akitt
  • Structutal Methodsd in inorganic chemistry, E.A.V. Ebsworth, D.W.H. Rankin, S. Crdock.
  • Introduction to Atomic Spectra- H.E. White
  • Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy- C.B. Banwell
  • Spectroscopy Vol. I,II and III, Walker and Straghen
  • Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy- G.M. Barrow
  • Spectra of diatomic molecules- Herzberg.
  • Molecular spectroscopy- Jeanne L. McHale
  • Molecular spectroscopy – J.M. Brown
  • Spectra of Atoms and Molecules-P.F. Bemath
  • Modern Spectroscopy- J.M. Holkas
 

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXIV (Optional)
Atomic and Molecular Physics  (Spectroscopy) -II

Unit-I
Spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein coefficients, ideas of light amplification, Threshold condition for laser oscillation, Pumping schemes, Role of resonant cavity, Three and four level systems, Ammonia MASER, ruby, HeNe, CO2, dye and diode lasers, Laser application, Holography, materials processing, Fission reaction, laser isotope separation, Pollution monitoring, Optical communication.

Unit-II
Saturation spectroscopy, Burning and detection of holes in Doppler broadened two level system, Experimental methods of saturation spectroscopy in Laser, Ramsey fringes, Saturation techniques for condensed matter application, Laser optogalvanic spectroscopy.

Unit-III
Two photon absorption spectroscopy, Selection rules, Expression for TPA cross section  photo-acoustic spectroscopy, PAS in gaseous medium, Roseneweig and Greshow theory, Thermally thin, thick samples, Typical experimental set up, Application in spectroscopy, Stimulated Raman scattering, Quantum mechanical treatment, Raman Oscillation Parametric instabilities, Electromagnetic theory of SRS.

Unit-IV
Vibronic interaction, Herzberg Teller theory, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Kasha’s rule, Quantum yield, Non-radioactive transitions, Jablonski diagram, Time resolved fluorescence and determination of excited state lifetime.
Light detectors, Single photon counting technique, Phase sensitive detectors

Unit-V
Matrix isolation spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Laser cooling.
Molecular symmetry and group theory, Matrix representation of symmetry elements of a point group, reducible and irreducible representations, character tables specially for C2v and C3 point group, Normal coordinates and normal modes, Application of group theory to molecular vibrations.

Text Book and References
  • Quantum electron – A. Yariv.
  • Introduction to non-linear laser spectroscopy- M.D. Levenson.
  • Photoacoustics and its applications, Roseneweig.
  • J.M. Hollas, High resolution spectroscopy
  • Cotton, Chemical Applications of Group Theory
  • Herzberg, Molecular spectra and molecular structure  II and III 
  • Demtroder, Laser spectroscopy and instrumentation
  • King, Molecular spectroscopy
  • Lakowicz, Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy.

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXXV (Optional)
Nuclear physics-I

Nuclear and Particle Physics
Unit-I
The nucleon-nucleon interaction: Nucleon-nucleon interaction and hadron structure: phenomenological nucleon – nucleon potentials- Meson-theory-derivation of Yukawa interaction – Electromagnetic properties of deuteron-polarization in nucleon- nucleon scattering – Scattering matrix-Probing charge distribution with electrons – Form factor- Proton form factors- Deep inelastic electron-proton scattering – Bjorken scaling and partons- Quarks within the protons- Gluons as mediators of strong interaction.
Particle phenomenology: Pion- nucleon scattering-Isospin analysis, Phase shifts- Resonance and their quantum numbers- Production and formation experiments, Relativistic kinematics and invariants- Mandelstam variables- Phase space- Decay of one particle into three particles- Dalitz plot.       
Nuclear radiation detectors: Ionization radiation: Ionization and transport phenomenon in gases – Avalanche multiplication
Detector properties: Detection- energy measurement-Position measurement-Time measurement

Unit-II

Gas Counters: Ionization chambers- Proportional counters- Multiwire proportional counters – Geiger-Muller counters- Neutron detectors
Solid state detectors:  Semiconductor detectors – Integrating solid state devices- Surface barrier detectors
Scintillation counters: Organic and inorganic scintillators- Theory, characteristics and detection efficiency-
High energy particle detectors: General principles – Nuclear emulsion- Cloud chambers- Bubble chambers- Cerenkov counter
Nuclear electronics:  Analog and digital pulses- Signal pulses- Transient effects in RC circuit- Pulse shaping- Linear amplifiers- Pulse height discriminators- Single channel analyser- Multichannel analyser
Nuclear Models and Nuclear Reactor Theory

Unit-III
Nuclear Models -Single particle shell model: Determinantal wave functions of the nucleus – single particle operator and their expectation values.
Extended single particle model: Classification of shells – Seniority and reduced i – spin – configuration mixing – Pairing force theory – Gap equation and ground state properties – Idea of quasi particles – Simple description of two – Particle shell model spectroscopy.
Collective Model of Nucleus: Deformable liquid drop and nuclear fission – Shell effects on liquid drop energy – Collective vibrations and exited states – Permanent deformation and collective rotations – Energy levels – Electromagnetic properties of even – even, odd-A deformed nuclei-Nilsson model and equilibrium deformation- Behaviour of nuclei at high spin, Back bending.
Nuclear Reactor Theory

Unit-IV
Introduction: Fundamentals of nuclear fission – Fission fuels- Neutron chain reaction - Multiplication factor – Condition for criticality – Breeding phenomena – Different types of reactors – Fusion – Nuclear fusion in stars.
The Diffusion of Neutrons: Neutron current density – The equation of continuity – Fick’s law – The diffusion equation – Boundary conditions – Measurement of diffusion parameters.
Neutron Moderation: Moderation without absorption – energy loss in elastic collisions – Collision and slowing – Down densities – Moderation – Space dependent slowing down – Fermi’s age theory – Moderation with absorption – NR and NRIM approximations – Temperature effects on resonance absorption.

Unit-V

Criticality: Criticality of an infinite homogeneous reactor – The one – region finite thermal reactor – The critical equation – Optimum reactor shapes – Multiregion reactors – One group and two group methods of calculation of criticality – Reflector saving – Critical reactor parameters and their experimental determination.
Reactor Kinetics: Infinite reactor with and without delayed neutrons – The stable period – Reactivity and its determination – The prompt jump and prompt critical condition – Changes in reactivity – Temperature coefficients – Fuel depletion effects.
Reactor Control: Control – rod – One control rod – Modified one group and two – group theories.

Text and reference Books.
  • G. E. Brown and  A.D. Jackson- Nucleon-nucleon interaction, North Holland (Amsterdam) 1976
  • S. de Benedetti, Nuclear interaction, John Willey and Sons, NY, 1964
  • P. Marmier and E. Sheldon, Physics and nuclei and particles Vol I and II, Academic press, NY 1970.
  • H.A. Enge , Introduction to nuclear physics, Addison-Wesley, 1975
  • S.S. Kapoor and V.S. Ramamurthy,  Nuclear radiation detectors, Wiley –Eastern, New Delhi, 1986.
  • W.H.  , Radiation detection Butterworths, London 1980
  • W.J. Price, Nuclear radiation detection,  Mc Graw Hill, NY 1964.
  • M. A. Preston and R. K. Bhaduri, Structure of the Nucleus, Addison Wesley, 1975
  • R. R. Roy and B. P. Nigam, Nuclear Physics, Wiley-Eastern Ltd., 1983
  • M. K. Pal, Theory of Nuclear structure, Affiliated East West, Madras, 1982
  • P. Marmier and E. Sheldon, Physics of Nuclei and Particles, Vol. II, Academic Press, New York, 1971
  • H. A. Enge, Introduction to Nuclear Physics, Addison Wesley, 1975
  • J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, Addison Wesley, 1966
  • P. F. Zweifel, Reactor Physics, McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd., Tokyo, 1973
  • S. Glasstone and M. C. Ediund, The Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory, Van Nostrand Co., 1953
  • M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors, University of Chicago Press, 1958
 
 

M. Sc. -II (Physics)
Paper-XXXVI (Optional)
Nuclear physics-II

 
Strong, weak and electromagnetic interaction and QCD and Quark-Gluon Plasma
Unit-I
Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions: Strong interactions and symmetries: Uses of symmetry – space time and internal symmetries – Lie groups generators and Lie algebra – Casimir operators – SU(2) irreducible representation – Weight diagram – Diagonal generators – SU(3) generators – U and V spin – Raising and lowering operators – Root diagram -  Weight diagram – Multiplets of SU(n) – Baryons and mesons multiplets – Symmetry breaking – Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula – Charm, bottom and top quarks and higher symmetry – Bag model for hadrons.

Unit-II

Weak and electromagnetic interactions: Invariance of Dirac equation – Bilinear covariants – properties of gamma matrices – Leptonic, semileptonic and nonleptonic weak decays – selection rule for leptons – Current-current interaction and V-A theory – Universality – Abelian and non-Ablian gauge invariance – Spontaneous symmetry breaking and Higgs mechanism - Standard model for electro weak unification.

Unit-III

Perturbative QCD I: Colour gauge invariance and QCD Lagrangian – Deep inelastic scattering: The GLAP equation – An alternative approach to the GLAP equation – Common parametrizations of the distribution functions – Structure functions. The spin – dependent structure functions and the MIT bag model.
Perturbative QCD II: The Drell – Yan Process – Small-x physics and the Gribov-Levin-Ryskin equation.
Nonperturbative QCD: QCD sum rules – The ground state of QCD – Equation of state of a Quark – Gluon plasma – Hadronizatiori phase transition.
Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Energy
Unit-IV
Nuclear reactions: Elementary approach to potential scattering theory – S-wave neutron scattering in the compound nuclear reaction model – Derivation and discussion of Breit-Wigner resonance formula – Single level single channel R-matrix (R-function) theory – Statistical model of compound nucleus reaction – Pre-equilibrium reactions – Discussion of direct reactions – Ground state deuteron – Magnetic moment – Quadrupole moment – S and D admixtures – Plane wave theory of deuteron – Stripping in zero range approximation – Spectroscopic factor and determination of nuclear level properties – Single nucleon transfer reactions – Features of medium and low energy heavy – ion elastic scattering – Diffraction model – Nuclear fission and extended liquid drop model.
Nuclear Energy: The fission process-Neutron released in the fission process. Cross sections – The fission reactors – Fusion – Thermonuclear reactions – Energy production in stars.

Unit-V

Accelerators
Historical Developments: Different types of accelerators – Layout and components of accelerators – Accelerator applications.
Transverse Motion: Hamiltonian for Particle motion in accelerators – Hamiltonian in Frenet-Serret coordinate system – Magnetic field in Frenet-Serret coordinate system – Equation of betatron motion – Particle motion in dipole and quadrupole magnets – Linear betatron motion: Transfer matrix and stability of betatron motion – Courant  - Snyder invariant and emittance – Stability of betatron motion – Sympletic condition – Effect of space – charge force on betatron motion.
Synchrotron Motion: Longitudinal equation of motion – The synchrotron Hamiltonian – The synchrotron mapping equation – Evolution phase space ellipse.
Linear Accelerators: Historical milestone – Fundamental properties of accelerating structures – Particle acceleration by EM waves – Longitudinal particle dynamics in Linac – Transverse beam dynamic in a Linac.
Principle and Design Details of Accelerators: Basic principle and design of accelerators viz. electrostatic, electrodynamics, resonant with special emphasis on microtron, pelletron and cyclotron – Syncrotron radiation sources – Spectrum of the emitted radiation and their applications.

 

Text and Reference Books
  • F. Halzen and A. D. Martin, Quarks and Leptons, John-Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984
  • G. Kane, Modern Elementary Particle Physics, Addision-Wesly, 1987
  • D. B. Lichtenberg, Unitary Symmetry and Elementary Particles, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, 1978
  • R. K. Bhaduri, Models of Nucleon, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1988
  • J. McL. Emmerson, Symmetry Principles in Particle Physics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1972
  • M. Leon, An introduction to particle physics, Academic Press, New York, 1973
  • J. R. Aitchison and A.J.G. Hey, Gauge Theories of Particle Physics, Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1989
  • D. H. Perkins, Introduction to High Energy Physics, Addison-Wesley, London, 1982
  • W. Greiner and A. Schafer, Quantum Chromodynamics, Springer, Berlin, 1993
  • D. H. Perkins, Introduction to High Energy Physics, Addison-Wesley, London, IV Edition, 2000
  • F.J. Yndurain, Quantum Chromodynamics – An Introduction to the Theory of  Quarks and Gluons, Springer – Verlag, New York, 1983
  • Satchler, Introduction to Nuclear Reactions
  • H. A. Enge, Introduction to Nuclear Physics, Addison Wesley, 1975
  • B. L. Cohen, Concepts of Nuclear Physics, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1978
  • P. Marmier and E. Sheldon, Physics of Nuclei and Particle, Vol. I & II Academic Press, 1969
  • S. Y. Lee, Accelerator Physics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1999
  • J. J. Livingood, Principles of Cyclic Particle Accelerators, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1961
  • J. P. Blewett, Particle Accelerators, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
  • S. P. Kapitza and V. N. Melekhin, The Microtron, Harwood Academic Publishers
  • W. Scharf, Particle Accelerators and Their Uses, Harwood Academic Publishers
  • M. Kapchinsky, Theory of Resonance Linear Accelerators, Harwood Academic Publishers
  • P. Lapostole and A. Septier, Linear Accelerators, North Holland.
 

Lab-work
(List of Recommended Expt.)
 Condensed Matter Physics
  • Measurement of lattice parameters and indexing of powder photographs
  • Interpretation of transmission Laue photographs.
  • Determination of orientation of a crystal by back reflection Laue method
  • Rotation/Oscillation Photographs and their interpretation.
  • To study the modulus of rigidity and internal friction in metal as a function of temperature.
  • To measure cleavage step height of a crystal by multiple Fizeaue fringes
  • To obtain multiple beam fringes of equal chromatic order to determine crystal step height and study birefringence.
  • To determine magnetoresistance of a Bismuth crystal as a function of magnetic field.
  • To study hysteresis in the electrical polarization of a TGS crystal and measure the Curie temperature.
  • To measure the dislocation density of a crystal by etching.
  • Lattice Dynamic (Electrical Analogue)
  • Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Solids
  • Determination of Relative permitivity
  • Study of frequency dependent relative permitivity
  • Study of Magnetic Susceptibility (c)
  • Specific Heat of Solid
  • Determination of Thermoelectric Power
 
Electronics
  • Pulse amplitude modulation/demodulation
  • Pulse position/Pulse width modulation/demodulation
  • FSK modulation/demodulation using timer/PLL
  • Microwave characterization and measurement
  • PLL circuits and applications
  • Fibre optics communication
  • Design of active filters
  • BCD to seven segment display
  • A/D and D/A conversion
  • Experiments using various types of memory elements
  • Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using 8085/8086
  • Waveform generation and storage oscilloscope
  • Frequency, voltage, temperature measurements
  • Motor speed, temperature control using 8086.
  • Trouble shooting using signature analyser
  • Assembler language programming on PC
  • Experiments based on computer aided design
 
Informatics
  • To study PCM-TDM
  • To study TDM-PAM
  • To study sampling and reconstruction (TDM/PAM)
  • To study frequency modulation
  • To study delta modulation, adaptive delta modulation, sigma delta modulation and demodulation techniques.
  • To study PSK, QPSK modulation techniques.
  • To generate PAM wave form
  • Optical communication (Fiber optic based Experiments)   
 
Materials Science
  • Crystal structure determination by powder diffraction.
  • Study of microstructures of metal alloys.
  • Dislocation in alkali halide crystals.
  • Crystal growth from slow cooling of the melt.
  • Thermal analysis of binary alloy
  • Differential thermal analysis of BaTiO3-PbTiO3 solid solution.
  • To study electrochemical method of corrosion control.
  • Dielectric behavior of LiNbO3 and BaTiO3 in crystals and ceramics.
  • Electrical conductivity of  ionic solids.
  • To test hardness of a material by Brinell hardness tester.
  • Photo elasticity study.
  • Multiple beam interferometric study of surfaces.
  • Thermal conductivity of bad conductors
  • Thermal expansion coefficient of metals.
  • Study of transport property in solid electrolytes
  • Verification of Nernst law/Oxygen sensor
  • Determination of Thermoelectric Power
X-Ray
  • Study of Crystal Models
  • X-ray Diffraction Photograph of a Metal Foil by Transmission (Hull Method)
  • X-ray Diffraction Photograph of a Metal Foil by Back Reflection
  • Powder Photograph by Debye Scherrer Method, Computer Analysis
  • Laue Photograph and Gnomonic Projection
  • Rotation Oscillation Photograph
  • Diffraction of X-rays by Liquids
  • Bragg’s Spectrometer: Uhler and Cooksey’s  method
  • Bent Crystal (Cauchois) Transmission Type Spectrograph: Study of K and L Absorption Edges.
  • Bent Crystal (Cauchois) Transmission Type Spectrograph: Study of K and L Emission Spectra
  • Measurement of  Intensities of Emission Lines, Computer Analysis
  • Study of Satellite Lines
  • Analysis of XANES Spectrum, Computer Analysis
  • Analysis of EXAFS Spectrum, Computer Analysis
  • Determination of Planck’s Constant by X-rays
  • X-ray Fluorescence Spectrum Analysis
  • Absorption Coefficient for X-rays by G.M./ Scintillation Counter
  • Characteristics of  G.M. tube
  • Compton Effect 
  • Operation of a Demountable X-ray Tube

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